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Table 5 Maternal trimester-specific bisphenol concentrations (categorized as detected and undetected) and preterm birth and small size for gestational age

From: Maternal bisphenol urine concentrations, fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes: A population-based prospective cohort

  Preterm birth Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) Small size for gestational age at birth Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
First trimester Second Trimester Third trimester First trimester Second Trimester Third trimester
Bisphenol A 1.62 (0.76, 3.17) 1.90 (0.65, 5.58) 1.20 (0.41, 3.47) 0.91 (0.56, 1.46) 1.02 (0.47, 2.20) 1.08 (0.56, 2.09)
Bisphenol S 1.63 (0.84, 3.24) 0.89 (0.43, 1.84) NA 0.56 (0.38, 0.84)† 0.91 (0.59, 1.42) NA
Bisphenol F 1.14 (0.56, 2.29) NA 1.01 (0.48, 2.12) 0.55 (0.36, 0.85)† NA 0.87 (0.56, 1.36)
  1. Values are odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) from binary logistic regression models that reflect the risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth for detected bisphenol concentrations, as compared to the reference group (undetected concentrations). Models include maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, ethnicity, educational level, parity, folic acid supplement use, alcohol consumption and smoking habits during each trimester or during pregnancy and daily caloric intake. †p-value< 0.020
  2. NA not applicable due to > 80% of concentrations below the limit of detection