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Table 3 Prenatal Exposures and Infant Changes from 1- to 6-Months Postpartum

From: Prenatal exposure to ambient air pollutants and early infant growth and adiposity in the Southern California Mother’s Milk Study

Exposure Δ Outcome β 95% CIs P-value
PM2.5 Weight 0.06 -0.06, 0.17 0.34
Length -0.04 -0.36, 0.28 0.80
Umbilical Circ 0.47 -0.02, 0.96 0.06
TSF 1.53 0.11, 2.94 0.04
CTSF 0.00 -0.01, 0.01 0.82
PM10 Weight 0.07 -0.05, 0.18 0.27
Length 0.07 -0.26, 0.39 0.68
Umbilical Circ 0.73 0.25, 1.21 0.003
TSF 1.40 -0.03, 2.82 0.05
CTSF 0.01 -0.00, 0.01 0.22
NO2 Weight 0.14 0.02, 0.25 0.02
Length 0.23 -0.09, 0.56 0.16
Umbilical Circ 0.25 -0.25, 0.76 0.32
TSF 1.69 0.25, 3.12 0.02
CTSF -0.00 -0.01, 0.00 0.37
O3 Weight -0.10 -0.22, 0.02 0.09
Length -0.20 -0.53, 0.13 0.23
Umbilical Circ 0.26 -0.25, 0.77 0.31
TSF -1.11 -2.57, 0.35 0.14
CTSF 0.01 0.00, 0.02 0.07
Oxwt Weight -0.05 -0.17, 0.07 0.41
Length -0.13 -0.46, 0.20 0.45
Umbilical Circ 0.59 0.09, 1.09 0.02
TSF -0.37 -1.85, 1.11 0.62
CTSF 0.01 0.00, 0.02 0.04
  1. Multivariable linear regression was performed to examine the relationships between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollutants and changes in infant growth from 1 to 6 months of age. Beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals are shown for a one standard deviation increase in exposure (PM2.5 [SD = 1.15 μg/m3], PM10 [SD = 3.54 μg/m3], NO2 [SD = 2.34 ppb], O3 [SD = 2.38 ppb], Oxwt [SD = 1.04]). Multivariable linear models adjust for infant sex, infant age, pre-pregnancy BMI, breastfeeding frequency, maternal age, and socioeconomic status. TSF and CTSF represent changes in total subcutaneous fat and the ratio of central to total subcutaneous fat, respectively