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Table 4 Changes in Infant Growth Measures from 1 to 6 Months Postpartum by Infant Sex

From: Prenatal exposure to ambient air pollutants and early infant growth and adiposity in the Southern California Mother’s Milk Study

  Females Males  
PM2.5 and Δ Outcome β 95% CIs P-value β 95% CIs P-value P interaction
 Weight 0.01 -0.15, 0.17 0.92 0.15 -0.03, 0.33 0.09 0.25
 Length -0.15 -0.61, -0.27 0.45 0.16 -0.32, 0.65 0.50 0.34
 Umbilical Circumference 0.35 -0.32, 1.03 0.30 -0.74 -0.03, 1.50 0.06 0.43
 TSF 1.52 -0.35, 3.38 0.11 1.45 -0.97, 3.87 0.23 0.96
 CTSF 0.00 -0.01, 0.01 0.60 0.00 -0.02, 0.01 0.79 0.70
PM10 and Δ Outcome β 95% CIs P-value β 95% CIs P-value P interaction
 Weight 0.02 -0.14, 0.18 0.81 0.14 -0.03, 0.32 0.11 0.35
 Length 0.09 -0.36, 0.54 0.69 0.05 -0.44, 0.54 0.84 0.77
 Umbilical Circumference 0.72 0.04, 1.39 0.04 0.80 0.04, 1.56 0.04 0.99
 TSF 1.40 -0.51, 3.31 0.15 1.29 -1.14, 3.72 0.29 0.98
 CTSF 0.00 -0.01, 0.01 0.64 0.01 -0.01, 0.02 0.24 0.36
NO2 and Δ Outcome β 95% CIs P-value β 95% CIs P-value P interaction
 Weight 0.13 -0.04, 0.29 0.13 0.18 0.01, 0.36 0.04 0.53
 Length 0.14 -0.33, 0.61 0.56 0.37 -0.10, 0.84 0.12 0.43
 Umbilical Circumference 0.07 -0.66, 0.80 0.84 0.71 -0.05, 1.46 0.07 0.16
 TSF 1.38 -0.63, 3.39 0.17 2.42 0.10, 4.73 0.04 0.43
 CTSF -0.00 -0.01, 0.01 0.75 -0.00 -0.02, 0.01 0.63 0.80
O3 and Δ Outcome β 95% CIs P-value β 95% CIs P-value P interaction
 Weight -0.11 -0.27, 0.06 0.20 -0.15 -0.34, 0.03 0.10 0.76
 Length 0.04 -0.43, 0.51 0.87 -0.60 -1.07, -0.13 0.01 0.05
 Umbilical Circumference 0.57 -0.13, 1.27 0.11 -0.39 -1.21, 0.43 0.34 0.05
 TSF -1.02 -3.01, 0.96 0.31 -1.64 -4.13, 0.85 0.19 0.72
 CTSF 0.00 -0.01, 0.01 0.56 0.01 -0.00, 0.02 0.10 0.18
Oxwt and Δ Outcome β 95% CIs P-value β 95% CIs P-value P interaction
 Weight -0.07 -0.23, 0.10 0.43 -0.08 -0.27, 0.11 0.41 0.91
 Length 0.16 -0.31, 0.63 0.49 -0.60 -1.07, -0.12 0.01 0.02
 Umbilical Circumference 0.92 0.24, 1.61 0.01 -0.00 -0.83, 0.82 0.99 0.06
 TSF -0.54 -2.55, 1.48 0.60 -0.47 -3.02, 2.08 0.71 0.88
 CTSF 0.00 -0.01, 0.01 0.51 0.01 0.00, 0.03 0.03 0.09
  1. Beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals are shown for a one standard deviation increase in exposure (PM2.5 [SD = 1.15 μg/m3], PM10 [SD = 3.54 μg/m3], NO2 [SD = 2.34 ppb], O3 [SD = 2.38 ppb], Oxwt [SD = 1.04]) via multivariable linear regression. Results are reported for females and males with the corresponding p-value for the interaction between Oxwt and infant sex. All stratified models adjusted for infant age, pre-pregnancy BMI, breastfeeding frequency, maternal age, and socioeconomic status