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Table 4 Regression of fetal parameters on PM2.5 exposure levels*

From: Household air pollution, ultrasound measurement, fetal biometric parameters and intrauterine growth restriction

Fetal parameters Coefficient 95% Confidence Interval p-value
BPD
 Mean PM2.5 quartile*
  Q2 −0.001 −0.098 to 0.096 0.985
  Q3 0.040 −0.058 to 0.138 0.424
  Q4 0.036 −0.063 to 0.135 0.474
 HC
 Mean PM2.5 quartile
  Q2 −0.065 − 0.394 to 0.264 0.698
  Q3 0.021 −0.311 to 0.353 0.901
  Q4 0.102 −0.232 to 0.435 0.551
FL
 Mean PM2.5 quartile
  Q2 −0.057 − 0.140 to 0.024 0.168
  Q3 −0.012 −0.093 to 0.070 0.780
  Q4 0.007 −0.075 to 0.089 0.869
AC
 Mean PM2.5 quartile
  Q2 −0.216 − 0.583 to 0.151 0.248
  Q3 0.063 −0.306 to 0.432 0.738
  Q4 0.083 −0.291 to 0.457 0.663
U-EFW
 Mean PM2.5 quartile
  Q2 −1.02 −31.144 to 29.112 0.947
  Q3 14.13 −16.749 to 45.015 0.370
  Q4 32.59 0.559 to 64.628 0.046
  1. BPD biparietal diameter; HC head circumference; FL fetal length; AC abdominal circumference; U-EFW ultrasound-estimated fetal weight; Reference category for PM2.5 level is the first quartile; square of gestational age was omitted from the model; *reference category – first quartile
  2. *Adjusted for mother’s age, body mass index, marital status, educational level, number of children, history of stillbirth, and history of miscarriage