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Table 1 Participants characteristics of eligible studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Association of indoor microbial aerosols with respiratory symptoms among under-five children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Year Country Microbial assessment/definition of measure Assessment of Respiratory health Outcome Effect estimate
Type of sample Sampling equipment Agent Analytical method Measure of Exposure Definition N Cases N total (baseline)
Gent et al., 2002 USA Indoor Air Burkard portable air sampler Fungi Plate count; Undetectable® Vs ≥ 1000 cfu/m3 Reported wheeze and persistent cough measured as number of days of symptoms (0, < 30 and ≥ 30 days) 119 880 RPW: 2.15 (1.34 – 3.46)a
PC: 2.06 (1.31 – 3.24)a
Rosenbaum et al., 2010 USA Indoor Air; Dust sample Single-stage Andersen air sampler; High volume vacuum cleaner Bacteria; Fungi; Endotoxin Plate count; KLARE Not detectable® Vs > 75th percentile Primary care provider documented wheeze; Wheeze heard on physical examination by a clinician 39 103 6.18 (1.34—28.46)a
Horick et al., 2006 USA Dust sample High volume vacuum cleaner Endotoxin KLARE TEC < 100 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 100EU/mg Primary care provider reported “any wheeze” ≥ 1 episode 42 360 5.56 (1.19 – 26.03)a
Park et al., 2001 USA Dust sample Eureka Mighty-Mite vacuum cleaner Endotoxin KLARE TEC < 100 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 100EU/mg Primary care provider reported “any wheeze” ≥ 1 episode or repeated episode of wheeze 211 499 AW: 1.33 (0.99–1.79)a
RW: 1.55 (1.00 – 2.42)a
Harley et al., 2009 USA Indoor Air Hirst-type sampler Fungi spores Spore count Not detectable® Vs ≥ 1000 cfu/m3 A child was considered to have early wheezing if medical records indicated a clinician’s diagnosis of asthma at any time between birth and 24 months of age 35 514 1.2 (0.7 – 2.7)a
Litonjua et al., 2002 USA Dust sample High volume vacuum cleaner Endotoxin KLARE TEC < 81.3 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 81.3EU/mg Wheezing in the past 12 month or repeated wheezing twice in the 4 years of follow-up 57 226 W: 1.52 (1.07—2.14)a
RW: 2.57 (1.00 – 6.62)a
Campo et al., 2006 USA Dust sample Filter Queen Majestic vacuum cleaner Endotoxin Kinetic Chromogenic -LAL TEC < 100 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 100EU/mg Recurrent wheeze; ≥ 2 wheezing episodes in the past 12 months or any wheezing: ≥ 1 wheezing episode in the past 12 months 137 532 RCW: 0.4 (0.1–0.9)a
AW: 0.3 (0.1–0.8)a
Gillespie et al., 2006 New Zealand Dust sample High volume vacuum cleaner Endotoxin Kinetic Chromogenic -LAL TEC < 100 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 100EU/mg Reported wheeze for at least 6 months. Rhinitis defined as blocked or runny nose when the child do not have a cold or flu 342 881 1.54 (1.03 – 2.30)a
Perzanowski et al., 2006 USA Dust sample Eureka Mighty-Mite vacuum cleaner Endotoxin Kinetic Chromogenic -LAL TEC < 100 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 100EU/mg Wheezing defined as presence of runny nose, sneezing, itchy eyes without cold at age 12, 24 and 36 months 163 301 1.04 (0.71 – 1.5)a
Karvonen et al., 2012 EU Dust sample High volume vacuum cleaner Endotoxin Kinetic Chromogenic -LAL TEC < 100 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 100EU/mg Primary care provider reported “any wheeze” ≥ 1 episode 984 1133 0.71 (0.51 – 0.99)a
Stark et al., 2005 USA Indoor Air
Dust sample
Burkard portable air sampler; Eureka Mighty Mite canister vacuum cleaner Fungi Plate count Low® Vs High
TEC < 100 EU/mg® Vs ≥ 100EU/mg
Doctor diagnosed allergic rhinitis or hay fever 52 405 3.13 (1.51 – 6.47)a
Biagini et al., 2006 USA Home inspection Walkthrough Checklist Mold Observation Low® Vs High Rhinitis defined as parents’ report of sneezing or a runny or blocked nose not associated with a cold or chest infection’ in the past 30 days 242 495 1.7 (0.7 – 3.8)a
Bolte et al., 2003 Germany Dust sample High volume vacuum cleaner Endotoxin Kinetic Chromogenic -LAL Highest quartile Vs Lowest quartile® Repeated wheeze defined as having had at least 2 episode of wheezing 378 1,942 1.77 (1.14 – 2.73)a
Douwes et al., 2006 The Netherlands Dust sample Rowenta Dymbo vacuum cleaner Endotoxin Kinetic Chromogenic -LAL Highest quartile Vs Medium quartile® Doctor-diagnosed asthma was defined as a reported diagnosis confirmed by a doctor at any time in the past 4 years 547 696 0.40 (0.21 – 0.77)a
Phipatanakul et al., 2005 USA Dust sample High volume vacuum cleaner Endotoxin Kinetic Chromogenic -LAL 4th quartile Vs 1st quartile® Any report of wheeze (any wheeze) in the first year of life 197 498 2.39 (1.22 – 4.68)a
  1. YOF Year of Follow-up, EU Europe, NA Not applicable, W Wheeze in the past 12 months, KLARE Kinetic Limulus assay with the resistant-parallel-line estimation, LAL Limulus amebocyte lysate, AW Any wheeze, RW Repeated wheeze, RPW Reported wheeze, RCW Recurrent wheeze, ® Reference value, PC Persistent cough, SPT Skin Prick Test
  2. aMultivariable adjusted effect estimate for LRTI risk