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Table 3 Effect estimates (EEs) of studies for the association between IM and respiratory symptoms among U-5C (the highest EEs reported for any IM exposure)

From: Association of indoor microbial aerosols with respiratory symptoms among under-five children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year/Country Type of Exposure and EEs
Adjusted EE (95% CI)
Any IM exposure TFC Aspergillus spp. Penicillium spp. Cladosporium spp. Alternaria spp. Visible molds Endotoxin
Gent et al., 2002/USA [35] 2.15 (1.34, 3.46) - - 2.15 (1.34, 3.46) 0.91 (0.53, 1.56) -   -
Rosenbaum et al., 2010/USA [36] 6.18 (1.34, 28.46) 3.64 (0.67, 19.65) 1.58 (0.43, 5.79) 6.18 (1.34, 28.46) 2.28 (0.41, 12.67) 0.96 (0.27, 3.45)   -
Horick et al., 2006/USA [37] 4.12 (1.03, 16.83) - - - - -   4.12 (1.03, 16.83)
Park et al., 2001/USA [38] 1.56 (1.03, 2.38) - - - - -   1.56 (1.03, 2.38)
Harley et al., 2009/USA [39] 2.80 (1.30, 5.90) 1.20 (0.70, 2.00) 1.3 (1.10, 1.50) 1.3 (1.10, 1.50) 0.90 (0.50, 1.60) -   -
Litonjua et al., 2002/USA [40] 2.57 (1.00, 6.62) - - - - -   2.57 (1.00, 6.62)
Campo et al., 2006/USA [41] 0.40 (0.10, 0.90) - - - - -   0.40 (0.10, 0.90)
Gillespie et al. 2006/Europe [42] 1.54 (1.03, 2.30) - - - - -   1.54 (1.03, 2.30)
Perzanowski et al. 2006/USA [43] 1.04 (0.71, 1.50) - - - - -   1.04 (0.71, 1.50)
Karvonen et al. 2012/Europe [44] 0.85 (0.72, 1.00) - - - - -   0.85 (0.72, 1.00)
Bolte et al., 2003/Europe [46] 1.77 (1.14, 2.73) - - - - -   1.77 (1.14, 2.73)
Douwes et al., 2006/Europe [47] 0.40 (0.21, 0.77) - - - - -   0.40 (0.21, 0.77)
Phipatanakul et al., 2005/USA [48] 2.39 (1.22, 4.68) - - - - -   2.39 (1.22, 4.68)
Stark et al., 2005/USA [23] 3.13 (1.51, 6.47) 3.13 (1.51, 6.47) 2.57 (1.22, 4.40) 1.51 (0.63, 3.64) 1.88 (0.81, 4.35) 2.34 (1.12, 4.91) 1.66 (0.87, 3.17) -
Biagini et al., 2006/USA [45] 1.70 (0.70, 3.80) - - - - - 1.70 (0.70, 3.80) -
  1. TFC Total Fungal Count
  2. Adjusted model in each study:
  3. - Gent et al., adjusted for socioeconomic factors and housing characteristics
  4. - Rosenbaum et al., adjusted for season of visit, maternal smoking during pregnancy, any smoker in the home, day care center or nonrelative care, and endotoxin
  5. - Horick et al., adjusted for race, presence of dog in home, former (not current) dog in home, use of dehumidifier, total mass of dust sample collected (in log scale), presence of concrete floor, missingness indicator for presence of concrete floor, and presence of water damage
  6. - Park et al., adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics
  7. - Harley et al., adjusted for gas stove in home, respiratory infection in first year of life, and PM2.5 in first 3 months of life (residuals independent of spores)
  8. - Litongua et al., adjusted for maternal asthma, maternal age, sex, prematurity, and area of residence
  9. - Campo et al., adjusted for sex, daycare attendance, number of siblings, mother smokes, parental history of asthma
  10. - Gillespie et al., adjusted for household size, number of rooms in the house, pet in home, dampness, musty smell, maternal smoking, open fireplace, type of flooring in the bedroom, and New Zealand Deprivation index
  11. - Perzanowski et al., adjusted for sex, maternal asthma, ethnicity and tobacco smoke exposure in the home
  12. - Karvonen et al., adjusted for study centre, farming status, gender, maternal history of allergic disease, smoking during pregnancy and number of sibling
  13. - Bolte et al., adjusted for gender, study region, breastfeeding, elder siblings, parental education, mite and cat allergen levels, frequent respiratory infections and smoking during pregnancy
  14. - Douwes et al., adjusted for sex, region, parental education level, exposure to indoor tobacco smoke in the past 4 years, and other children in the household at 4 years of age
  15. - Phipatanakul et al., adjust for sex, household income, and paternal history of asthma
  16. - Stark et al., adjusted for water damage or mold or mildew in year 1, African-American ethnicity, maternal Alternaria, IgE > 0.35 U/mL
  17. - Biagini et al., adjusted for mother’s education, gender, cat and dog ownership, daycare attendance, breastfeeding and number of diaries returned