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Table 3 Quantile g-computation estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the change in newborn and maternal telomere length (T/S ratio) for a one quartile increase within the (a) overall mixture of PFAS and PBDEs, (b) PFAS and (c) PBDEs in all samples and among paired samples

From: Mixture effects of prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and polybrominated diphenyl ethers on maternal and newborn telomere length

   β 95% CI
All Samples
Newborn Telomere Length (N = 292)
 Overalla 0.03 (-0.03, 0.08)
 PFASb 0.00 (-0.04, 0.05)
 PBDEsc 0.03 (-0.01, 0.06)
Maternal Telomere Length (N = 110)
 Overalla 0.03 (-0.03, 0.09)
 PFASb 0.04 (-0.01, 0.09)
 PBDEsc -0.02 (-0.06, 0.02)
Matched Maternal–Fetal Unit Paired Samples
Newborn Telomere Length (N = 76)  
 Overalla 0.16 (0.03, 0.28)
 PFASb 0.11 (0.01, 0.22)
 PBDEsc 0.07 (-0.01, 0.15)
Maternal Telomere Length (N = 76)
 Overalla 0.02 (-0.05, 0.10)
 PFASb 0.03 (-0.03, 0.10)
 PBDEsc -0.02 (-0.07, 0.03)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval
  2. Note: Beta estimates are interpreted as the effect on telomere length of increasing every exposure in the mixture by one quantile. There are 326 pregnant participants, of which there are 76 matched maternal–fetal unit pairs
  3. aAdjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, and pre-pregnancy body mass index
  4. bMixture effect is for only PFAS, adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and PBDEs
  5. cMixture effect is for only PBDEs, adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and PFAS