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Table 4 Quantile g-computation estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the change in newborn and maternal telomere length (T/S ratio) for a one quartile increase within the overall mixture stratified by infant sex

From: Mixture effects of prenatal exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and polybrominated diphenyl ethers on maternal and newborn telomere length

  Male Female
N β 95% CI N β 95% CI
Newborn Telomere Length (N = 291)
 Overalla 145 0.04 (-0.03, 0.12) 146 0.01 (-0.07, 0.09)
 PFASb 145 0.01 (-0.05, 0.07) 146 0.00 (-0.07, 0.07)
 PBDEsc 145 0.03 (-0.02, 0.07) 146 0.02 (-0.03, 0.08)
Maternal Telomere Length (N = 109)
 Overalla 52 0.11 (0.00, 0.23) 57 -0.01 (-0.09, 0.07)
 PFASb 52 0.14 (0.01, 0.27) 57 0.03 (-0.03, 0.09)
 PBDEsc 52 -0.02 (-0.08, 0.05) 57 -0.04 (-0.09, 0.02)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval
  2. Adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, and pre-pregnancy body mass index
  3. Note: Beta estimates are interpreted as the effect on telomere length of increasing every exposure in the mixture by one quantile. There are 326 pregnant participants, of which there are 76 maternal–fetal unit pairs. Infant sex was missing for one participant
  4. aAdjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, and pre-pregnancy body mass index
  5. bMixture effect is for only PFAS, adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and PBDEs
  6. cMixture effect is for only PBDEs, adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and PFAS