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Table 1 Participant characteristics by gender for adults (18 +) and adolescents [10–17 years]

From: Exposure to environmental phenols and parabens, and relation to body mass index, eczema and respiratory outcomes in the Norwegian RHINESSA study

  Adults (≥ 18 years) Adolescents (10–17 years)
  All (n = 496) Men (n = 258) Women (n = 238) All (n = 90) Boys (n = 46) Girls (n = 44)
Age [median (min–max)] 27.4 (18.1–47.5) 28.3 (18.1- 47.5) 26.4 (18.1- 45.2) * 14.9 (9.8–17.9) 15.3 (11.0–17.9) 14.6 (9.7–17.8)
Education (%)
Primary school 2.1 3.3 0.9 60.7 56.5 65.1
Secondary school 40.6 45.0 36.1 39.3 43.5 34.9
University/college 57.3 51.7 63.0*    
Smoking(cigarettes) (%)
Never 64.4 62.3 66.5 95.4 93.3 97.6
Previous 24.2 23.7 24.8 2.3 2.2 2.4
Current 11.4 14.0 8.7 2.3 4.4 -
Fasting(% yes) 41.6 41.2 42.0 28.1 26.7 29.6
Time of urine collection (%)
Before 10 AM 18.4 16.8 20.2 13.3 10.9 15.9
10 AM-12 PM 39.3 39.1 39.5 31.1 34.8 27.3
12–2 PM 37.3 39.9 34.4 25.6 19.6 31.8
After 2 PM 5.0 4.3 5.9 30.0 34.8 25.0
Current eczema (% yes) 11.3 9.5 13.3 12.2 10.9 13.6
Current rhinitis (% yes) 44.1 43.6 44.7 31.1 39.1 22.7
Current asthma (% yes) 6.75 4.7 8.9 11.6 9.3 13.9
Spesific IgE (% yes) 43.5 50.5 35.8** 56.0 65.9 44.1
BMI-group (kg/m2)(%)       
 < 18.5 1.8 1.2 2.5 7.0 4.5 9.5
 ≥ 18.5–25 56.5 44.2 69.8 75.6 75.0 76.2
 ≥ 25–30 30.4 41.4 18.5 15.1 18.2 11.9
 ≥ 30 11.3 13.2 9.2** 2.3 2.3 2.4
  1. *P-value < 0.05 and **P-value < 0.01 for difference between gender categories (Pearson’s chi square for categorical variable, t-test for continuous variables). Information on gender was missing for 4 participants (3 adults and 1 adolescent not included in the table) who had provided urine samples. BMI categories for adolescents: international BMI definitions for normal weight, overweight or obese. IgE positivity defined by IgE ≥ 0.35 kU/L to at least 1 of 5 allergens tested (cat, timothy grass, Cladosporium, birch, and house dust mite). Observation missing: Education: 28 (adults), 1 (adolescent); smoking: 30 (adults), 3 (adolescents); Fasting: 1 (adult); Current eczema: 18 (adults), Current asthma: 7 (adults), 4 (adolescents); Current rhinitits: 18 (adults); specific IgE: 18 (adults), 15 (adolescents), BMI;3 (adolescent); time of urine collections: no missing