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Table 8 Associations between urine biomarkers of chemical exposure and BMI in adult participants. Linear regression estimate (∆ and 95% confidence interval (CI)) for urine biomarkers applied as continuous variables, and logistic regression (OR and CI) for biomarkers applied as dichotomous variables (butylparaben, 2,5-DCP, triclosan and triclocarban)

From: Exposure to environmental phenols and parabens, and relation to body mass index, eczema and respiratory outcomes in the Norwegian RHINESSA study

  Sex: male vs female BMI Interactionc
  ∆/OR CI p ∆/OR CI p ∆/OR CI p
Sum of parabensa -0.65 (-0.80,-0.51)  < 0.001 -0.01 (-0.03,0.01) 0.3 0.01 (-0.02,0.05) 0.4
Methylparabena -1.68 (-2.01,-1.35)  < 0.001 -0.02 (-0.08,-0.00) 0.04 0.04 (-0.03,0.11) 0.3
Butylparabenb 0.14 (0.09,0.22)  < 0.001 1.01 (0.97,1.06) 0.7 1.02 (0.92,1.12) 0.7
Propylparabena -2.16 (-2.52,-1.81)  < 0.001 -0.02 (-0.05,0.02) 0.4 0.03 (-0.04,0.10) 0.4
Ethylparabena -1.09 (-1.36,-0.81)  < 0.001 -0.05 (-0.08,-0.01) 0.007 0.04 (-0.03,0.10) 0.3
Benzophenone-3a -1.58 (-1.97,-1.19)  < 0.001 0.02 (-0.03,0.06) 0.5 -0.07 (-0.15,0.01) 0.1
Bisphenol Sa -0.07 (-0.19,0.06) 0.3 0.01 (-0.01,0.02) 0.4 0.03 (-0.00,0.06) 0.07
Bisphenol Fa -0.14 (-0.33,0.05) 0.15 -0.00 (0.02,0.02) 0.9 -0.01 (-0.06,0.03) 0.6
Bisphenol Aa 0.21 (0.06,0.35) 0.005 0.00 (-0.01,0.02) 0.8 0.01 (-0.02,0.04) 0.5
2,4-DCPa -0.05 (-0.18,0.09) 0.5 -0.02 (-0.03,-0.01) 0.007 0.01 (-0.02,0.03) 0.7
2,5-DCPb 1.89 (1.25,2.87)) 0.003 1.01 (0.96,1.06)) 0.6 1.00 (0.91,1.10) 1.0
Triclosanb 0.81 (0.51,1.30) 0.4 0.92 (0.87,0.97) 0.002 1.05 (0.94,1.17) 0.4
Triclocarbanb 0.70 (0.28,1.76) 0.5 1.06 (0.95,1.17) 0.3 0.87 (0.72,1.04) 0.1
  1. aMultiple linear or blogistic regression (for dichotomous exposure) including sex and BMI, adjusted for age, smoking, and time of day of urine sampling; cInteraction term between sex and BMI