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Table 1 Population characteristics (n = 10,481,566)

From: Effects of exposure to surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise with non-accidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch national cohort

Covariate Category N (proportion) or median (IQR)
Individual covariates
 Age   53 (23)
 Sex male 5,109,777 (0.49)
female 5,371,789 (0.51)
 Marital status married 6,385,590 (0.61)
widowed 821,282 (0.08)
divorced 1,147,403 (0.11)
single 2,127,291 (0.20)
 Region of origin Morocco 163,553 (0.02)
Turkey 197,937 (0.02)
Suriname 199,253 (0.02)
Antilles Netherlands 67,021 (0.01)
Other non-western 325,276 (0.03)
western 1,026,870 (0.10)
Netherlands 8,501,656 (0.81)
 Standardized household income  < 1% 53,471 (0.01)
1–5% 135,758 (0.01)
5–10% 335,972 (0.03)
10–25% 1,280,658 (0.12)
25–50% 2,555,622 (0.25)
50–75% 2,810,407 (0.27)
75–90% 1,813,078 (0.18)
90–95% 633,437 (0.06)
95–99% 517,220 (0.05)
 > 99% 128,445 (0.01)
Area-level SES covariates
 Composite SES 4 digit postal code Based on education, income and paid occupation (year = 2011–2014) 0.3 (1.3)
 Mean income neighborhood Mean income per income recipient *€ 1000 (year = 2010) 29.3 (5.4)
 Unemployment rate neighborhood Number of people with income support per 1000 inhabitants of 15–64 years (year = 2010) 25.0 (10.0)
 Percentage non-western immigrants neighborhood Percentage non-western immigrants (year = 2010) 7.0 (11.0)
 Mean income region Mean income per income recipient *€ 1000 (year = 2010) 34.1 (2.6)
 Unemployment rate region Number of people with income support per 1000 inhabitants of 15–64 years (year = 2010) 24.5 (7.3)
 Percentage non-western immigrants region Percentage non-western immigrants (year = 2010) 8.4 (5.9)
Mortality outcomes
 Non-accidental mortality   776,021 (0.07)
 Circulatory disease mortality   215,018 (0.02)
 Ischemic heart disease mortality   49,530 (0.00)
 Cerebrovascular disease mortality   52,276 (0.00)
 Respiratory disease mortality   69,401 (0.01)
 COPD mortality   37,203 (0.00)
 Lung cancer mortality   59,837 (0.01)
 Neurodegenerative disease mortality   90,587 (0.01)
 Dementia mortality   57,122 (0.01)
Exposures
 NDVI 300 m (unitless)   0.52 (0.14)
 TOP10NL 300 m (proportion)   0.18 (0.23)
 NDVI 1000 m (unitless)   0.55 (0.14)
 TOP10NL 1000 m (proportion)   0.34 (0.31)
 NO2 (µg/m3) a   26.3 (8.3)
 PM2.5 (µg/m3) a   16.8 (1.4)
 BC (10–5/m) a   1.3 (0.3)
 PM10 (µg/m3) b   24.5 (1.3)
 PMcoarse (µg/m3) b   8.1 (0.8)
 OPDTT (nmol DTT/min/m3) b   1.2 (0.3)
 OPESR (A.U./1000/m3) b, c   0.9 (0.2)
 Road traffic noise (Lden, dB)   53.5 (7.5)
 Rail-traffic noise (Lden, dB)   30.7 (9.4)
  1. Estimated with the average of the national LUR, Europe-wide hybrid and national dispersion models. NO2 = nitrogen dioxide, PM2.5 = particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm, BC = Black carbon
  2. Estimated with a national LUR model, PM10 = particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm, PMcoarse = particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 10 and 2.5 µm, OPESR = Oxidative Potential electron spin resonance, OPDTT = Oxidative Potential dithiothreitol
  3. A.U. = arbitrary unit