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Table 3 Associations of exposures with non-accidental and cause-specific mortality in two-exposure models a, b

From: Effects of exposure to surrounding green, air pollution and traffic noise with non-accidental and cause-specific mortality in the Dutch national cohort

Model Exposure (IQR) Non-accidental mortality Circulatory disease mortality Respiratory disease mortality Lung cancer mortality Neurodegenerative disease mortality
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
NO2 + NDVI 300 m NO2 (8.3) 1.008 (1.003, 1.014) 1.007 (0.997, 1.017) 1.040 (1.022, 1.059) 1.035 (1.017, 1.055) 0.977 (0.960, 0.994)
NDVI 300 m (0.14) 0.974 (0.971, 0.978) 0.989 (0.982, 0.996) 0.964 (0.952, 0.976) 0.934 (0.922, 0.946) 0.972 (0.960, 0.983)
PM2.5 + NDVI 300 m PM2.5 (1.4) 1.007 (1.003, 1.010) 1.014 (1.007, 1.021) 1.051 (1.038, 1.064) 1.030 (1.017, 1.043) 1.004 (0.992, 1.015)
NDVI 300 m (0.14) 0.973 (0.970, 0.977) 0.990 (0.983, 0.997) 0.964 (0.952, 0.975) 0.931 (0.920, 0.943) 0.978 (0.967, 0.989)
OPDTT + NDVI 300 m OPDTT (0.3) 1.009 (1.005, 1.013) 1.009 (1.001, 1.017) 1.048 (1.033, 1.062) 1.025 (1.011, 1.039) 1.010 (0.997, 1.023)
NDVI 300 m (0.14) 0.976 (0.972, 0.979) 0.991 (0.983, 0.998) 0.972 (0.959, 0.984) 0.934 (0.922, 0.947) 0.982 (0.970, 0.994)
road-traffic noise + NDVI 300 m road-traffic noise (7.5) 1.000 (0.997, 1.003) 1.003 (0.997, 1.009) 0.996 (0.985, 1.007) 1.019 (1.008, 1.031) 0.967 (0.957, 0.977)
NDVI 300 m (0.14) 0.972 (0.969, 0.976) 0.988 (0.981, 0.994) 0.953 (0.942, 0.965) 0.929 (0.918, 0.941) 0.970 (0.959, 0.981)
NO2 + TOP10NL 1000 m NO2 (8.3) 1.005 (1.000, 1.011) 1.004 (0.993, 1.015) 1.050 (1.030, 1.071) 1.053 (1.033, 1.074) 0.979 (0.961, 0.997)
TOP10NL 1000 m (0.31) 0.969 (0.964, 0.974) 0.983 (0.973, 0.993) 0.981 (0.963, 0.999) 0.964 (0.947, 0.982) 0.974 (0.958, 0.991)
PM2.5 + TOP10NL 1000 m PM2.5 (1.4) 1.007 (1.003, 1.011) 1.013 (1.006, 1.020) 1.055 (1.041, 1.068) 1.037 (1.023, 1.050) 1.006 (0.994, 1.018)
TOP10NL 1000 m (0.31) 0.968 (0.964, 0.973) 0.985 (0.976, 0.994) 0.974 (0.959, 0.99) 0.952 (0.936, 0.968) 0.985 (0.971, 1.001)
OPDTT + TOP10NL 1000 m OPDTT (0.3) 1.009 (1.005, 1.013) 1.008 (1.000, 1.016) 1.058 (1.043, 1.073) 1.041 (1.026, 1.056) 1.017 (1.003, 1.030)
TOP10NL 1000 m (0.31) 0.972 (0.966, 0.977) 0.986 (0.976, 0.996) 0.992 (0.974, 1.010) 0.964 (0.947, 0.982) 0.994 (0.977, 1.011)
road-traffic noise + TOP10NL 1000 m road-traffic noise (7.5) 1.001 (0.998, 1.004) 1.003 (0.997, 1.009) 0.999 (0.988, 1.010) 1.025 (1.014, 1.036) 0.969 (0.959, 0.979)
TOP10NL 1000 m (0.31) 0.967 (0.962, 0.971) 0.982 (0.973, 0.991) 0.959 (0.943, 0.974) 0.948 (0.932, 0.963) 0.975 (0.960, 0.990)
NO2 + road-traffic noise NO2 (8.3) 1.023 (1.018, 1.029) 1.012 (1.001, 1.023) 1.072 (1.053, 1.093) 1.063 (1.043, 1.083) 1.016 (0.998, 1.034)
road-traffic noise (7.5) 0.999 (0.995, 1.002) 1.002 (0.995, 1.008) 0.985 (0.974, 0.997) 1.014 (1.002, 1.027) 0.968 (0.957, 0.979)
PM2.5 + road-traffic noise PM2.5 (1.4) 1.012 (1.008, 1.016) 1.016 (1.008, 1.023) 1.062 (1.049, 1.076) 1.039 (1.026, 1.053) 1.018 (1.006, 1.031)
road-traffic noise (7.5) 1.002 (0.999, 1.006) 1.002 (0.996, 1.008) 0.991 (0.980, 1.002) 1.023 (1.012, 1.035) 0.968 (0.958, 0.978)
OPDTT + road-traffic noise OPDTT (0.3) 1.020 (1.016, 1.023) 1.012 (1.005, 1.020) 1.063 (1.050, 1.077) 1.050 (1.036, 1.064) 1.028 (1.015, 1.040)
road-traffic noise (7.5) 1.002 (0.998, 1.005) 1.003 (0.997, 1.009) 0.994 (0.983, 1.004) 1.023 (1.012, 1.035) 0.967 (0.958, 0.977)
  1. Associations are expressed per IQR increase. We used models with age as underlying time scale, stratified by sex and adjusted for marital status, region of origin, standardized household income, PC4 composite SES, mean income neighborhood, unemployment neighborhood, percentage of immigrants neighborhood, mean income region, unemployment region and percentage of immigrants region
  2. NO2 and PM2.5 were with the average of the national LUR, Europe-wide hybrid and national dispersion models. OPDTT was estimated with a national LUR model