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Table 1 Variables, definitions and data sources

From: Impact of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and temperature on coronavirus disease mortality: observed trends in France

Variables Definition Data sources Data year Level considered
COVID-19 death rate in hospitals Number of cumulated COVID-19 deaths in hospitals expressed per 100 000 people Ministry of Health
https://www.data.gouv.fr/fr/datasets/donnees-hospitalieres-relatives-a-lepidemie-de-covid-19/
2020 Department
Availability of healthcare services
 Number of resuscitation beds Number of resuscitation beds expressed per 100 000 people Ministry of Health
https://drees.solidarites-sante.gouv.fr
2018 Department
 Number of intensive care beds Number of intensive care beds expressed per 100 000 people Ministry of Health
https://drees.solidarites-sante.gouv.fr
2018 Department
 Physicians density Number of physicians divided by the department area Ministry of Health
https://drees.solidarites-sante.gouv.fr
2018 Department
Socio-spatial factors
 %People aged 60 +  Proportion of the population 60 years of age or older Eurostat 2019 Department
 %Males Proportion of male sex in population Eurostat 2019 Department
 %Unemployment Proportion of adults unemployed adults Eurostat 2019 Department
 %Urban population Proportion of people living in the greater urban areas (per cent) FNORS/STATISS 2019, version of May 18, 2020 2016 Department
 Rate of poverty Rate of monetary poverty (per cent) FNORS 2016 Department
 Population density Number of people by square kilometer Eurostat 2019 Department
 Population size Size of population for each department (by thousand) Eurostat 2019 Department
Health risk factors
 Standardized Prevalence rate of Diabetes Standardized prevalence rate of pharmacologically treated diabetes (all types) (%) https://www.santepubliquefrance.fr/maladies-et-traumatismes/diabete 2018 Department
Environmental factors
 PM2.5 Particle matter 2.5 (micro g / m3) Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) 1999–2016 Department
 Temperature Annual average of temperature (°C) World climate
https://www.worldclim.org
2001–2012 Department
  1. NB: The rate is standardized according to age, the reference population being the whole of France in the 2006 population census