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Table 2 Associations of SHS exposure during early life with the scores of the SDSC in children aged 6–18 yearsa

From: Exposure to second-hand smoke during early life and subsequent sleep problems in children: a population-based cross-sectional study

Estimates (95%CI) Exposure to SHS during early life
Unexposed Ever exposed during pregnancy or the first 2 years of life Ever exposed during both pregnancy and the first 2 years of life
Total score
 Model 1 [1] Reference 2.84 (2.55, 3.13) 4.56 (4.30, 4.82)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 2.69 (2.40, 2.98) 4.32 (4.06, 4.58)
DIMS score
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.72 (1.43, 2.00) 3.05 (2.80, 3.31)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.56 (1.27, 1.84) 2.81 (2.55, 3.07)
SBD score
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.38 (1.09, 1.67) 2.33 (2.07, 2.59)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.34 (1.05, 1.63) 2.30 (2.03, 2.56)
DA score
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.48 (1.19, 1.78) 2.19 (1.92, 2.45)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.34 (1.05, 1.63) 1.96 (1.70, 2.23)
SWTD score
 Model 1 [1] Reference 2.76 (2.47, 3.06) 4.23 (3.96, 4.49)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 2.68 (2.38, 2.97) 4.09 (3.82, 4.35)
DOES score
 Model 1 [1] Reference 2.21 (1.91, 2.51) 3.42 (3.16, 3.69)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 2.07 (1.77, 2.37) 3.20 (2.93, 3.47)
SHY score
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.22 (0.94, 1.50) 2.07 (1.82, 2.32)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.24 (0.96, 1.52) 2.12 (1.87, 2.37)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, DA Disorders of arousal, DIMS Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, DOES Disorders of excessive somnolence, SBD Sleep breathing disorders, SDSC The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, SHS Second-hand smoke, SHY Sleep hyperhidrosis, SWTD Sleep–wake transition disorders
  2. aModel 1 was adjusted for a school-level random intercept. Model 2 was adjusted for a school-level random intercept, child age, sex, only child, preterm birth and low birth weight, parental educational levels, yearly household income, maternal age during pregnancy, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy