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Table 3 Associations of SHS exposure during early life with the increased problems within the clinical range using the SDSC in children aged 6–18 yearsa

From: Exposure to second-hand smoke during early life and subsequent sleep problems in children: a population-based cross-sectional study

Odd Ratios (95%CI) Exposure to SHS during early life
Unexposed Ever exposed during pregnancy or the first 2 years of life Ever exposed during both pregnancy and the first 2 years of life
Increased sleep problems
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.91 (1.65, 2.21) 2.43 (2.15, 2.74)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.76 (1.52, 2.04) 2.14 (1.89, 2.42)
Increased DIMS
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.52 (1.30, 1.78) 1.99 (1.75, 2.27)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.43 (1.22, 1.67) 1.78 (1.56, 2.04)
Increased SBD
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.50 (1.33, 1.70) 1.80 (1.62, 2.00)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.48 (1.31, 1.67) 1.77 (1.59, 1.97)
Increased DA
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.53 (1.31, 1.78) 1.68 (1.47, 1.92)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.42 (1.21, 1.66) 1.48 (1.29, 1.70)
Increased SWTD
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.61 (1.41, 1.83) 2.13 (1.91, 2.37)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.53 (1.34, 1.75) 1.97 (1.76, 2.20)
Increased DOES
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.56 (1.39, 1.76) 1.99 (1.80, 2.20)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.49 (1.32, 1.68) 1.85 (1.67, 2.05)
Increased SHY
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.41 (1.24, 1.59) 1.73 (1.55, 1.92)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.42 (1.25, 1.61) 1.77 (1.58, 1.97)
Shorter sleep duration
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.08 (0.96, 1.22) 1.07 (0.96, 1.19)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.06 (0.93, 1.20) 1.05 (0.94, 1.18)
Longer sleep latency
 Model 1 [1] Reference 1.65 (1.30, 2.10) 1.75 (1.41, 2.16)
 Model 2 [1] Reference 1.53 (1.20, 1.96) 1.54 (1.24, 1.92)
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, DA Disorders of arousal, DIMS Disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, DOES Disorders of excessive somnolence, SBD Sleep breathing disorders, SDSC The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children, SHS Second-hand smoke, SHY Sleep hyperhidrosis, SWTD Sleep–wake transition disorders
  2. aModel was adjusted for a school-level random intercept, child age, sex, only child, preterm birth and low birth weight, parental educational levels, yearly household income, maternal age during pregnancy, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy