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Table 4 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for TGCT associated with domestic use of pesticides during early periods of development, by household applications, overall and according to histological subtypes, case-control study, N = 578, France, 2015–2018

From: Domestic use of pesticides during early periods of development and risk of testicular germ cell tumors in adulthood: a French nationwide case-control study

  Total Controls A + B All TGCT cases Non-Seminomas Seminomas P-HETb
(N = 578) (N = 274) (N = 304) (N = 132) (N = 144)
n (%) n (%) n (%) ORa (95% CI) n (%) ORa (95% CI) n (%) ORa (95% CI)
For Gardening
Use of pesticides          0.08
  No 433 (74.9) 206 (75.2) 227 (74.7) 1.00 90 (68.2) 1.00 116 (80.6) 1.00  
  Yes 138 (23.9) 65 (23.7) 73 (24.0) 1.18 (0.77, 1.82) 39 (29.5) 1.60 (0.92, 2.78) 27 (18.8) 0.78 (0.43, 1.40)  
  Missing 7 (1.2) 3 (1.1) 4 (1.3) 3 (2.3) 1 (0.7)  
Use of insecticides          0.17
  No 509 (88.1) 240 (87.6) 269 (88.5) 1.00 114 (86.4) 1.00 130 (90.3) 1.00  
  Yes 69 (11.9) 34 (12.4) 35 (11.5) 1.11 (0.63, 1.94) 18 (13.6) 1.66 (0.83, 3.33) 14 (9.7) 0.79 (0.36, 1.73)  
  Missing 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Use of herbicides          0.17
  No 508 (87.9) 242 (88.3) 266 (87.5) 1.00 111 (84.1) 1.00 129 (89.6) 1.00  
  Yes 70 (12.1) 32 (11.7) 38 (12.5) 1.15 (0.67, 2.00) 21 (15.9) 1.64 (0.83, 3.27) 15 (10.4) 0.80 (0.37, 1.71)  
  Missing 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Use of fungicides          0.75
  No 541 (93.6) 257 (93.8) 284 (93.4) 1.00 122 (92.4) 1.00 135 (93.8) 1.00  
  Yes 37 (6.4) 17 (6.2) 20 (6.6) 1.22 (0.59, 2.54) 10 (7.6) 1.28 (0.50, 3.30) 9 (6.3) 1.03 (0.40, 2.65)  
  Missing 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
On Indoor Plantsc
Use of insecticides          0.82
  No 545 (94.3) 262 (95.6) 283 (93.1) 1.00 124 (93.9) 1.00 133 (92.4) 1.00  
  Yes 28 (4.8) 10 (3.6) 18 (5.9) 2.06 (0.89, 4.75) 7 (5.3) 1.90 (0.62, 5.80) 10 (6.9) 2.26 (0.83, 6.15)  
  Missing 5 (0.9) 2 (0.7) 3 (1.0) 1 (0.8) 1 (0.7)  
For Pest Control
Use of insecticides          0.19
  No 174 (30.1) 82 (29.9) 92 (30.3) 1.00 38 (28.8) 1.00 45 (31.3) 1.00  
  Yes 404 (69.9) 192 (70.1) 212 (69.7) 1.12 (0.75, 1.69) 94 (71.2) 1.49 (0.83, 2.67) 99 (68.8) 0.89 (0.54, 1.49)  
  Missing 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
Insecticide use frequency against crawling insects          0.58
  No use 371 (64.2) 183 (66.8) 188 (61.8) 1.00 79 (59.8) 1.00 93 (64.6) 1.00  
  Less than once a month 153 (26.5) 67 (24.5) 86 (28.3) 1.31 (0.85, 2.02) 40 (30.3) 1.65 (0.90, 3.04) 36 (25.0) 1.07 (0.62, 1.86)  
  Less than once a week 32 (5.5) 17 (6.2) 15 (4.9) 0.83 (0.38, 1.80) 7 (5.3) 0.98 (0.35, 2.73) 8 (5.6) 0.73 (0.29, 1.88)  
  More than once a week to daily 20 (3.5) 6 (1.8) 14 (3.3) 1.78 (0.56, 5.60) 5 (3.8) 1.43 (0.27, 7.68) 7 (4.9) 2.07 (0.48, 9.00)  
  Missing 2 (0.3) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.3) 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0)  
P trend     0.41   0.39   0.80  
Insecticide use frequency against flying insects          0.33
  No use 228 (39.4) 106 (38.7) 122 (40.1) 1.00 51 (38.6) 1.00 58 (40.3) 1.00  
  Less than once a month 153 (26.5) 73 (26.6) 80 (26.3) 1.16 (0.73, 1.85) 36 (27.3) 1.53 (0.79, 2.96) 40 (27.8) 0.93 (0.52, 1.67)  
  Less than once a week 83 (14.4) 40 (14.6) 43 (14.1) 0.94 (0.53, 1.67) 22 (16.7) 1.43 (0.67, 3.05) 16 (11.1) 0.62 (0.28, 1.36)  
  More than once a week 77 (13.3) 39 (14.2) 38 (12.5) 0.94 (0.52, 1.70) 16 (12.1) 1.17 (0.50, 2.76) 19 (13.2) 0.87 (0.41, 1.83)  
  Daily 35 (6.1) 14 (5.1) 21 (6.9) 1.98 (0.89, 4.44) 7 (5.3) 1.21 (0.36, 4.10) 11 (7.6) 2.60 (0.95, 7.10)  
  Missing 2 (0.3) 2 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
P trend     0.45   0.59   0.52  
Wood and Moldd
Use of fungicides and/or insecticides for woodwork          0.03
  No 517 (89.4) 249 (90.9) 268 (88.2) 1.00 110 (83.3) 1.00 134 (93.1) 1.00  
  Yes 57 (9.9) 24 (8.8) 33 (10.9) 1.36 (0.73, 2.55) 21 (15.9) 2.35 (1.06, 5.20) 8 (5.6) 0.58 (0.22, 1.53)  
  Missing 4 (0.7) 1 (0.4) 3 (1.0) 1 (0.8) 2 (1.4)  
Pets
Use of insecticides on cats and dogs          0.01
  No 410 (70.9) 195 (71.2) 215 (70.7) 1.00 85 (64.4) 1.00 114 (79.2) 1.00  
  Yes 163 (28.2) 76 (27.7) 87 (28.6) 1.14 (0.76, 1.71) 45 (34.1) 1.95 (1.12, 3.40) 30 (20.8) 0.66 (0.38, 1.15)  
  Missing 5 (0.9) 3 (1.1) 2 (0.7) 2 (1.5) 0 (0.0)  
Use of insecticides on other animalse
  No 565 (97.8) 268 (97.8) 297 (97.7) 1.00      
  Yes 11 (1.9) 6 (2.2) 5 (1.6) 0.38 (0.09, 1.61)      
  Missing 2 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.7)      
  1. OR odds ratios, CI confidence intervals
  2. a Estimates obtained comparing TGCT cases to group A and group B controls combined. Analysis was restricted to subjects with no missing data for the exposure variable (0.2 to 1.4% excluded)
  3. b P-value for heterogeneity derived from the Likelihood Ratio Test, comparing seminoma versus non-seminoma tumours
  4. c Use of fungicides on indoors plants was not presented because some cells had less than 5 subjects
  5. d Use of fungicides on mold was not presented because some cells had less than 5 subjects
  6. e Analysis by subtype for use of insecticides on other animals was not presented because some cells had less than 5 subjects