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Table 1 Summary of individual characteristics for the 3081 participants across long-term PM2.5 exposure tertiles

From: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in an Eastern Mediterranean country: findings based on a 15-year cohort study

  All Study Participants PM2·5 (μg/m3) Tertiles P-value
T1 (< 38.2041) T2 (38.2041-51.6069) T3 (> 51.6069)
No. Individuals 3081 1026 1026 1029  
No. Clusters 37 26 35 32  
No. Eventsa 1060 307 300 453  
Age \(\left(\overline{\mathrm{x}},\mathrm{sd}\right)\) 49.55 (11.57) 50.11 (11.72) 49.56 (11.54) 48.99 (11.43) 0.090
Female (%) 1589 (51.6) 556 (54.2) 517 (50.4) 516 (50.1) 0.121
Low SES (%) 1045 (33.9) 323 (31.5) 344 (33.5) 378 (36.7) 0.079
Ever Smoker (%) 517 (16.8) 144 (14.0) 188 (18.3) 185 (18.0) 0.049
Low Physical Activity (%) 772 (25.1) 267 (26.0) 270 (26.3) 235 (22.8) 0.373
Poor diet (%) 296 (9.6) 109 (10.6) 89 (8.7) 98 (9.5) 0.320
BMI      0.399
 Overweightb (%) 1223 (40.7) 425 (42.2) 387 (38.8) 411 (41.0)  
 Obesityc (%) 774 (25.7) 260 (25.8) 270 (27.1) 244 (24.3)  
History of heart disease in the family (%) 162(5.3) 52(5.1) 45(4.4) 65(6.3) 0.138
Hypertensiond (%) 771(25.0) 266(25.9) 238(23.2) 267(25.9) 0.254
Diabetes (%) 233(7.6) 80(7.8) 84(8.3) 69(6.8) 0.422
Cholesterol (\(\overline{\mathrm{x}},\mathrm{sd}\)) 217.85(50.22) 215.80(48.71) 221.63(49.11) 216.16(52.56) 0.014
Triglycerides (\(\overline{\mathrm{x}},\mathrm{sd}\)) 203.82(124.14) 204.53(127.50) 202.15(128.60) 204.76(116.11) 0.872
Normal LDL to HDL ratio (%) 2710(97.6) 901(97.8) 904(97.1) 905(97.7) 0.425
Urban (%) 2429(78.8) 983(95.8) 825(80.4) 621(60.3) < 0.001
  1. aFatal CVD(n = 105) + Major CVD Events(n = 441) + AMI(n = 73) + Stroke(n = 92) + IHD(n = 349)
  2. b25 ≤ Body Mass Index< 29.9 \({\mathrm{kg}}\left/{\mathrm{m}^2}\right.\)
  3. cBody Mass Index≥30 \({\mathrm{kg}}\left/{\mathrm{m}^2}\right.\)
  4. dDiastolic Blood Pressure > 90 mmHg or Systolic Blood Pressure > 140 mmHg or if the patients were receiving antihypertensive drugs