Skip to main content

Table 3 Estimated HRs for Fatal CVD, CVD AMI, and stroke events associated with an increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, according to individual and clinical variables

From: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in an Eastern Mediterranean country: findings based on a 15-year cohort study

Characteristic Fatal CVD CVD Events AMI Events Stroke Events
HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc
Gender    0.750    0.001    0.125    0.171
Female Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Male 1.712 (1.020,2.873) 1.009 (0.998,1.020)   1.351 (1.051,1.735) 1.006 (1.001,1.011)   2.167 (1.148,4.090) 1.013 (1.000,1.027)   1.153(0.678,1.958) 1.003 (0.992,1.014)  
Age    0.050    0.004    0.078    0.001
< 60 Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
> 60 6.943 (4.182,11.527) 1.046 (1.033,1.060)   2.524 (2.005,3.177) 1.017 (1.012,1.022)   1.903 (1.045,3.468) 1.009 (0.996,1.022)   4.687 (2.880,7.628) 1.031 (1.020,1.043)  
SES 0.998 (0.990,1.001) 0.999 (0.989,1.011) 0.258 0.997 (0.980,1.010) 0.999 (0.994,1.003) 0.780 0.997 (0.991,1.012) 1.000 (0.988,1.013) 0.138 1.001 (0.988,1.014) 0.996 (0.986,1.007) 0.700
Smoking Status    0.935    0.03       0.913
None Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Ever 1.336 (0.803,2.221) 1.004 (0.993,1.016)   1.411 (1.07,1.817) 1.006 (1.001,1.011)   1.410 (0.755,2.634) 1.009 (0.997,1.022)   1.577(0.926,2.687) 1.007 (0.996,1.018)  
Physical Activity 0.402 (0.193,0.837) 0.991 (0.984,0.998) < 0.001 0.627 (0.457,0.859) 0.995 (0.992,0.998) 0.001 0.402 (0.157,1.032) 0.992 (0.984,0.999) 0.004 0.435 (0.205,0.920) 0.993 (0.986,1.000) 0.03
Dietary behaviors    0.515    0.816    0.179    0.474
Poor Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Healthy 1.104 (0.551,2.211) 1.004 (0.988,1.011)   1.087(0.778,1.520) 1.001 (0.994,1.008)   0.692 (0.324,1.478) 0.992 (0.977,1.007)   1.067 (0.530,2.148) 1.001 (0.986, 1.016)  
Hypertension Status    0.001    0.001    0.117    < 0.001
No Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Yes 1.809 (1.161,2.818) 1.013 (1.003,1.023)   1.783 (1.431,2.223) 1.012 (1.007,1.016)   1.394 (0.782,2.485) 1.007 (0.996,1.019)   1.924 (1.210,3.059) 1.012 (1.002,1.022)  
Diabetes    0.020    0.040    0.010    0.010
No Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Yes 3.964 (2.437,6.448) 1.033 (1.022,1.044)   2.238 (1.675,2.991) 1.016 (1.009,1.022)   3.650 (1.877,7.099) 1.025 (1.011,1.039)   3.255 (1.888,5.611) 1.024 (1.012,1.037)  
Cholesterol 1.003 (0.998,1.008) 1.000 (1.000,1.000) 0.867 1.002 (1.000,1.005) 1.000 (1.000,1.000) 0.005 1.010 (1.005,1.015) 1.000 (1.000,1.000) 0.020 0.997 (0.992,1.002) 1.000 (1.000,1.000) 0.368
Triglycerides 0.997 (0.994,1.001) 1.000 (0.999,1.000) 0.116 1.000 (0.999,1.002) 1.000 (1.000,1.000) 0.687 0.998 (0.994,1.001) 1.000 (0.999,1.000) 0.811 1.000 (0.997,1.003) 1.000 (1.000,1.000) 0.146
LDL to HDL ratio 0.145 (0.016,1.319) 0.981 (0.965,0.998) 0.003 1.252 (0.170,9.253) 0.998 (0.988,1.008) 0.638 1.021 (0.988,1.056) 0.362
BMI 0.865 (0.478,1.563) 0.996 (0.983,1.009) 0.695 1.252 (0.170,9.253) 1.002 (0.997,1.007) 0.375 1.022 (0.529,1.974) 1.000 (0.9987,1.013) 0.346 1.508 (0.902,2.520) 1.010 (1.000,1.021) 0.910
History of heart disease in the family    0.501    0.714    0.097    0.344
No Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Yes 1.133 (0.540,2.378) 1.003 (0.987,1.018)   1.109 (0.754,1.630) 1.002 (0.994,1.009)   1.037 (0.367,2.925) 0.999 (0.980,1.020)   0.978 (0.420,2.280) 1.000 (0.984,1.018)  
Urban/Rural status    0.117    0.001    0.004    0.004
Urban Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Rural 0.988 (0.971,1.001) 0.987 (0.973,1.000)   0.988 (0.975,1.011) 0.989 (0.984,0.994)   0.988 (0.975,1.011) 0.984 (0.970,0.998)   0.986 (0.970,1.000) 0.987 (0.975,1.000)  
  1. aCrude model: adjusted no factors associated with CVD events
  2. bAdjusted model: adjusted for gender (coded as female/male), age (coded as < 60/> 60), SES (continues), smoking status (coded as none/ever), physical activity (continues), dietary behaviors (coded as poor/healthy), hypertension status (coded as no/yes), diabetes (coded as no/yes), cholesterol (continues), triglycerides (continues), LDL to HDL ratio (continues), BMI (continues), history of heart disease in the family (coded as no/yes), urban/rural status (coded as urban/rural), cluster random effect
  3. cP-values are the interaction results between PM2.5 exposure and individual/clinical variables