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Table 4 Estimated HRs for fatal CVD and CVD events associated with PM2.5 tertiles, according to individual and clinical variables

From: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality in an Eastern Mediterranean country: findings based on a 15-year cohort study

Characteristic Fatal CVD CVD Events AMI Events Stroke Events
HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc HR (95% CI)a HR (95% CI)b Pc
Gender    0.002    0.001    0.073    0.527
Female Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Male 1.795 (1.068,3.018) 1.265 (1.003,1.595)   1.394 (1.084,1.793) 1.152 (1.032,1.286)   2.242 (1.185,4.242) 1.302 (0.976,1.737)   1.208 (0.709,2.058) 1.108 (0.881,1.394)  
Age    < 0.001    0.035    0.207    < 0.001
< 60 Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
> 60 6.995 (4.218,11.601) 2.606 (1.956,3.471)   2.497 (1.984,3.142) 1.416 (1.274,1.581)   1.871 (1.027,3.409) 1.194 (0.902,1.580)   4.624 (2.844,7.518) 1.869 (1.474,2.370)  
SES 0.971 (0.882,1011) 0.970 (0.763,1.234) 0.451 0.988 (0.880,1.023) 0.981 (0.884,1.089) 0.999 0.849 (0.664,1.211) 0.984 (0.751,1.290) 0.525 0.861 (0.724, 1.171) 0.922 (0.737,1.154) 0.283
Smoking Status    0.770    0.078       0.316
None Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Ever 1.299 (0.780,2.162) 1.004 (0.787,1.279)   1.401(1.089,1.802) 1.110 (0.996,1.237)   1.407 (0.753,2.629) 1.209 (0.922,1.584)   1.536 (0.902,2.615) 1.119 (0.888,1.409)  
Physical Activity 0.387 (0.186,0.808) 0.834 (0.717,0.967) 0.040 0.612 (0.446,0.840) 0.896 (0.838,0.958) 0.044 0.389 (0.151,0.999) 0.813 (0.678,0.976) 0.046 0.421 (0.199,0.892) 0.855 (0.739,0.991) 0.04
Dietary behaviors    0.120       0.096    0.231
Poor Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Healthy 1.101 (0.549,2.207) 1.091 (0.768,1.549)   1.091(0.780,1.525) 1.016 (0.878,1.174)   0.697 (0.327,1.489) 0.862 (0.612,1.215)   1.063 (0.528,2.138) 0.994 (0.732,1.351)  
Hypertension Status    0.001    < 0.001    0.209    0.023
No Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Yes 1.832 (1.177,2.853) 1.321 (1.074,1.626)   1.754 (1.407,2.185) 1.246 (1.132,1.371)   1.376 (0.773,2.448) 1.144 (0.890,1.470)   1.914 (1.206,3.039) 1.278 (1.043,1.565)  
Diabetes    0.021    0.002    0.005    0.001
No Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Yes 4.179 (2.555,6.833) 2.003 (1.586,2.530)   2.278 (1.705,3.045) 1.418 (1.247,1.613)   3.688 (1.897,7.169) 1.664 (1.231,2.249)   3.375 (1.952,5.838) 1.693 (1.316,2.177)  
Cholesterol 1.003 (0.998,1.009) 1.002 (0.999,1.004) 0.112 1.003 (1.000,1.005) 1.001 (1.000,1.002) 0.042 1.010 (1.005,1.015) 1.004 (1.002,1.006) 0.041 0.997 (0.992,1.002) 0.999 (0.997,1.002) 0.705
Triglycerides 0.997 (0. 994,1.000) 0.999 (0.997,1.000) 0.152 1.000 (0.999,1.002) 1.000 (0.999,1.000) 0.060 0.998 (0.994,1.001) 0.999 (0.998,1.01) 0.808 1.000 (0.997,1.003) 0.999 (0.998,1.001) 0.421
LDL to HDL ratio 0.184 (0.020,1.708) 0.683 (0.481,0.971) 0.245 1.190 (0.161,8.778) 0.964 (0.782,1.188) 0.147 1.597 (0.728,3.508) 0.599
BMI 0.904 (0.498,1.638) 0.993 (0.748,1.319) 0.781 1.141 (0.889,1.465) 1.069 (0.959,1.191) 0.240 1.027 (0.531,1.988) 0.990 (0.745,1.316) 0.782 10,541 (0.921,2.580) 1.303 (1.042,1.628) < 0.001
History of heart disease in the family    0.248    0.326    0.099    0.084
No Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Yes 1.066 (0.507,2.242) 0.946 (0.671,1.334)   1.100 (0.748,1.618) 1.022 (0.870,1.202)   1.044 (0.371,2.942) 0.999 (0.646,1.543)   0.965 (0.415,2.247) 1.021 (0.717,1.453)  
Urban/Rural status    0.012    0.038    0.043    0.035
Urban Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.   Ref. Ref.  
Rural 0.751 (0.513,0.957) 0.684 (0.512,0.915)   0.841 (0.658,0.954) 0.768 (0.686,0.858)   0.548 (0.311, 0.867) 0.680 (0.493,0.937)   0.858 (0.750,.970) 0.733 (0.570,0.944)  
  1. aCrude model: adjusted no factors associated with CVD events
  2. bAdjusted model: adjusted for gender (coded as female/male), age (coded as < 60/> 60), SES (continues), smoking status (coded as none/ever), physical activity (continues), dietary behaviors (coded as poor/healthy), hypertension status (coded as no/yes), diabetes (coded as no/yes), cholesterol (continues), triglycerides (continues), LDL to HDL ratio (continues), BMI (continues), history of heart disease in the family (coded as no/yes), urban/rural status (coded as urban/rural), and cluster random effect
  3. cP-values are the interaction results between PM2.5 tertiles exposure and individual/clinical variables