Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison between reference doses (RfDs) set by European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), including their corresponding endpoint of concern in animal studies, and range of phthalate estimated intakes that were reported to be significantly associated with endpoints of concern in humans

From: Role of epidemiology in risk assessment: a case study of five ortho-phthalates

Phthalate Derived from animal studies Based on human studies
RfD a Endpoint and effect of concern Lowest estimated intake a Significant endpoint Highest estimated intake a Significant endpoint
DEHP 35 Testicular germ cell depletion and reduced testes weight 0.03 Decreased number of ovarian antral follicles in women [39] 242.5 Decreased semen quality and concentration in men [47]
DBP 6.7 Reduced spermatocyte development at postnatal day 21, and mammary gland changes in adult male offspring 0.19 Decreased sperm motility and semen concentration in men [48] 2.86 Decrease thyroid hormone T4 and freeT4 in women [49]
BBP 500 Reduced anogenital distance and several other endpoints from various studies 0.06 Increased steroid hormone binding globulin in children [50] 0.58 Increased body mass index and waist circumference in men and women [51]
DIBP 8.3 Overall potency of DIBP similar to DBP; possible potency difference of 25% between DIBP and DBP 0.08 Decreased masculine play behavior in boys [52] 0.51 Increased occurrence of eczema in children [53]
  1. a Units are in microgram per kilogram of body weight per day
  2. DEHP diethylhexyl phthalate; DBP dibutyl phthalate; BBP butylbenzyl phthalate; DIBP diisobutyl phthalate;