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Table 3 Ten lowest estimated intake and significant endpoints by population

From: Role of epidemiology in risk assessment: a case study of five ortho-phthalates

Phthalate Endpoint statistically significant Effect Population Tested Estimated intake a Reference
DEHP Number of ovarian antral follicles Decreased Women 0.03–0.16 b [39]
BBP Serum steroid hormone binding globulin in children Increased Mothers 3 T 0.06 [50]
BBP Social problems in children Increased Mothers 3 T 0.07 [64]
DIBP Masculine play behavior in boys Decreased Mothers 2 T 0.08 [52]
BBP Thyroid hormone T3 Decreased Children (4–9 yo) 0.10 [71]
DIBP Number of ovarian antral follicles Decreased Women 0.13 [39]
DIBP Motor and psychomotor development in children Delayed and Decreased Mothers 3 T 0.17 [66]
DEHP Height standard deviation Decreased Children (12 yo) 0.18 [72]
DIBP Estrogen, testosterone and free testosterone Decreased Children (8–14 yo) 0.18 [50, 53]
DEHP Insulin sensitivity Increased Children (12 yo) 0.19 [72]
  1. a In microgram per kilogram of body weight per day
  2. b Range of intake estimated based on urinary concentration of monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP)
  3. Abbreviations: DEHP diethylhexyl phthalate; DBP dibutyl phthalate; BBP butylbenzyl phthalate; DIBP diisobutyl phthalate; 1 T, 2 T, 3 T first, second and third trimester; yo year-old