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Table 3 Associations between GW-Specific Neurotoxicant Exposures and Symptom Trajectories Adjusted for other exposures

From: Health symptom trajectories and neurotoxicant exposures in Gulf War veterans: the Ft. Devens cohort

Outcome Comparison Khamisiyah OR [95% CI] Tent Heater OR [95% CI] PB Pill (21 or More) OR [95% CI] Chemical Alert (20 or More) OR [95% CI]
Difficulty Concentrating No Sx (n = 69) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 56) 1.44 [0.57–3.66] 0.65 [0.26–1.61] 3.53 [1.08–11.50] 0.74 [0.26–2.15]
Mixed (n = 46) 2.50 [0.95–6.58] 0.79 [0.29–2.14] 3.70 [1.00–13.70] 0.61 [0.19–2.00]
Remitting Sx (n = 49) 1.87 [0.76–4.57] 0.73 [0.29–1.85] 1.56 [0.45–5.40] 1.33 [0.50–3.52]
Consistent Sx (n = 68) 3.09 [1.26–57.61] 0.69 [0.27–1.75] 2.71 [0.81–9.13] 0.95 [0.34–2.63]
Dizziness No Sx (n = 133) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 39) 0.76 [0.30–1.93] 2.22 [0.83–5.91] 4.87 [1.78–13.37] 1.90 [0.70–5.17]
Mixed (n = 37) 0.82 [0.32–2.07] 1.34 [0.53–3.42] 0.35 [0.07–1.84] 2.38 [0.86–6.60]
Remitting Sx (n = 43) 1.09 [0.46–2.57] 1.31 [0.54–3.16] 2.33 [0.82–6.67] 1.54 [0.57–4.13]
Consistent Sx (n = 18) 6.49 [1.51–27.90] 1.11 [0.27–4.49] 8.59 [2.07–35.59] 0.85 [0.19–3.85]
Fatigue No Sx (n = 46) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 56) 0.78 [0.28–2.16] 1.16 [0.44–3.08] 3.93 [0.98–15.78] 1.31 [0.44–3.94]
Mixed (n = 30) 1.42 [0.46–4.39] 1.35 [0.44–4.17] 4.06 [0.85–19.52] 0.67 [0.16–2.70]
Remitting Sx (n = 49) 1.28 [0.48–3.42] 3.02 [1.05–8.68] 1.80 [0.39–8.33] 0.69 [0.21–2.31]
Consistent Sx (n = 101) 1.30 [0.53–3.19] 1.47 [0.60–3.61] 3.76 [1.02–13.88] 1.03 [0.37–2.88]
Crying Easily No Sx (n = 178) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 35) 1.02 [0.38–2.70] 2.23 [0.76–6.57] 1.73 [0.56–5.36] 1.15 [0.37–3.57]
Mixed (n = 18) 0.85 [0.21–3.43] 3.43 [0.62–19.01] 1.67 [0.32–8.68] 1.29 [0.27–6.13]
Remitting Sx (n = 39) 0.79 [0.29–2.16] 4.12 [1.18–14.39] 0.88 [0.26–3.04] 1.90 [0.66–5.47]
Consistent Sx (n = 12) 0.81 [0.15–4.28] Sample Size Issue 2.66 [0.43–15.52] 2.02 [0.32–12.65]
Nervous or Tense No Sx (n = 67) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 60) 1.12 [0.47–2.65] 0.99 [0.43–2.29] 3.80 [1.03–14.05] 1.21 [0.44–3.38]
Mixed (n = 59) 1.42 [0.58–3.45] 1.91 [0.75–4.82] 3.99 [1.05–14.99] 1.06 [0.36–3.13]
Remitting Sx (n = 38) 0.88 [0.33–2.32] 2.16 [0.80–5.88] 2.87 [0.68–12.03] 1.48 [0.49–4.45]
Consistent Sx (n = 62) 1.14 [0.44–2.99] 1.78 [0.65–4.84] 7.42 [1.89–29.09] 0.97 [0.30–3.08]
Upset Stomach/Nausea No Sx (n = 113) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 36) 0.35 [0.12–1.01] 5.42 [1.45–20.29] 0.64 [0.15–2.69] 0.57 [0.14–2.26]
Mixed (n = 40) 0.33 [0.11–0.93] 0.96 [0.37–2.49] 0.60 [0.15–2.44] 1.74 [0.62–4.92]
Remitting Sx (n = 64) 0.37 [0.16–0.82] 1.31 [0.60–2.90] 1.40 [0.55–3.53] 0.88 [0.36–2.13]
Consistent Sx (n = 36) 0.85 [0.30–2.38] 2.68 [0.79–9.13] 3.27 [1.03–10.31] 1.02 [0.32–3.28]
Shortness of Breath No Sx (n = 155) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 58) 0.76 [0.34–1.72] 3.46 [1.34–8.95] 2.68 [1.07–6.70] 1.61 [0.66–3.92]
Mixed (n = 28) 1.00 [0.29–3.38] 2.02 [0.51–8.02] 2.39 [0.60–9.54] 1.39 [0.36–5.42]
Remitting Sx (n = 21) 1.27 [0.43–3.72] 1.74 [0.51–5.94] 2.07 [0.55–7.78] 0.57 [0.14–2.44]
Consistent Sx (n = 24) 2.61 [0.74–9.24] 0.22 [0.05–0.88] 2.15 [0.43–10.70] 1.51 [0.38–6.02]
Depressed Mood No Sx (n = 77) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 63) 2.36 [0.99–5.63] 0.93 [0.40–2.19] 4.46 [1.34–14.80] 0.91 [0.33–2.47]
Mixed (n = 45) 1.51 [0.56–4.09] 0.83 [0.32–2.15] 3.90 [1.09–13.98] 1.18 [0.41–3.46]
Remitting Sx (n = 48) 3.19 [1.32–7.73] 1.23 [0.49–3.08] 3.10 [0.88–10.94] 1.06 [0.39–2.93]
Consistent Sx (n = 51) 2.99 [1.08–8.31] 1.12 [0.39–3.23] 7.01 [1.82–26.99] 1.00 [0.31–3.24]
Headaches No Sx (n = 63) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 31) 0.34 [0.11–1.04] 0.87 [0.30–2.50] 0.69 [0.15–3.28] 1.15 [0.30–4.48]
Mixed (n = 39) 1.00 [0.36–2.78] 0.94 [0.32–2.72] 0.65 [0.13–3.22] 4.10 [1.29–13.04]
Remitting Sx (n = 81) 0.34 [0.15–0.78] 1.54 [0.65–3.62] 2.10 [0.72–6.14] 1.00 [0.35–2.91]
Consistent Sx (n = 75) 0.44 [0.18–1.07] 0.76 [0.31–1.86] 2.82 [0.91–8.75] 2.09 [0.73–6.00]
Muscle Twitching No Sx (n = 111) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 61) 1.03 [0.47–2.24] 1.26 [0.58–2.74] 1.51 [0.57–4.00] 1.26 [0.50–3.17]
Mixed (n = 27) 0.87 [0.30–2.50] 0.80 [0.29–2.23] 1.49 [0.41–5.50] 0.83 [0.23–3.02]
Remitting Sx (n = 40) 0.94 [0.38–2.27] 2.39 [0.90–6.36] 0.96 [0.30–3.08] 1.39 [0.50–3.92]
Consistent Sx (n = 47) 0.98 [0.39–2.48] 3.11 [1.07–9.06] 2.18 [0.74–6.43] 2.23 [0.81–6.15]
  No Sx, (n = 138) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 49) 0.55 [0.22–1.39] 0.40 [0.17–0.94] 4.72 [1.63–13.71] 0.17 [0.04–0.67]
Mixed (n = 37) 1.60 [0.61–4.23] 1.22 [0.40–3.70] 1.83 [0.58–5.82] 2.31 [0.83–6.45]
Remitting Sx (n = 34) 0.77 [0.30–2.01] 1.23 [0.43–3.51] 1.64 [0.46–5.75] 0.73 [0.23–2.29]
Consistent Sx (n = 25) 1.27 [0.41–3.91] 0.62 [0.19–2.00] 1.78 [0.43–7.37] 2.00 [0.60–6.62]
Hands Sweating No Sx (n = 199) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 15) 0.53 [0.10–2.68] 2.53 [0.50–12.75] 3.16 [0.73–13.66] 1.43 [0.32–6.37]
Mixed (n = 16) 4.09 [1.03–16.22] 2.43 [0.47–12.56] 4.47 [1.06–18.81] 1.53 [0.36–6.52]
Remitting Sx (n = 48) 1.43 [0.60–3.40] 1.51 [0.59–3.86] 2.32 [0.86–6.26] 1.23 [0.47–3.21]
Consistent Sx (n = 11) 5.22 [0.44–61.56] 2.36 [0.15–38.03] 3.18 [0.29–35.23] 1.65 [0.17–15.81]
Trouble Sleeping No Sx (n = 55) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 82) 0.72 [0.31–1.69] 1.35 [0.57–3.18] 1.43 [0.40–5.12] 1.12 [0.42–3.03]
Mixed (n = 35) 0.79 [0.27–2.27] 0.82 [0.29–2.32] 3.30 [0.82–13.26] 1.47 [0.46–4.71]
Remitting Sx (n = 33) 1.09 [0.39–3.05] 1.04 [0.37–2.97] 2.57 [0.63–10.42] 0.67 [0.18–2.41]
Rapid Heartbeat No Sx (n = 166) Ref. Ref. Ref. Ref.
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 44) 0.89 [0.39–2.05] 1.19 [0.52–2.74] 1.53 (0.57–4.14] 1.33 [0.54–3.27]
Mixed (n = 26) 1.36 [0.46–4.06] 1.04 [0.34–3.15] 1.90 [0.51–7.11] 0.46 [0.10–2.03]
Remitting Sx (n = 30) 1.19 [0.42–3.38] 2.64 [0.70–9.89] 1.95 [0.57–6.69] 0.64 [0.17–2.37]
Consistent Sx (n = 16) 1.45 [0.42–5.01] 1.45 [0.38–5.59] 2.27 [0.54–9.51] 1.15 [0.29–4.54]
Joint Pain No Sx (n = 29) Ref Ref Ref Ref
No Sx, Develops Sx (n = 56) 1.16 [0.39–3.46] 1.04 [0.35–3.09] Sample Size Issue 0.67 [0.20–2.25]
Mixed (n = 46) 0.99 [0.31–3.15] 0.91 [0.30–2.79] Sample Size Issue 0.34 [0.09–1.38]
Remitting Sx (n = 39) 1.81 [0.58–5.68] 1.04 [0.33–3.33] Sample Size Issue 0.64 [0.17–2.34]
Consistent Sx (n = 104) 1.44 [0.50–4.15] 1.31 [0.45–3.81] Sample Size Issue 0.84 [0.26–2.67]
  1. All analyses included age, gender, and baseline PTSD status as covariates. p< 0.05