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Table 1 Participant Characteristics and Distribution of Higher Urine 2,4-D Concentrations. Legend: Distribution of high (> 0.4 μg/L urine) 2,4-D urinary concentrations and associations with key variables in unadjusted models. * = reference level

From: Association between increasing agricultural use of 2,4-D and population biomarkers of exposure: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2014

Variable Frequency
(%)
Population
Estimate
High Urine
2,4-D
in Sample
Estimated Population with High Exposure % with
High 2,4-D
(95% CI)
Unadjusted Odds Ratio (95% CI)
Total 14,395 244,607,215 4681 82,642,980 33.8 (32.1, 35.5)  
Survey Cycle
 2001–2002 2685 (15.1) 37,004,806 457 6,332,340 17.1 (13.9, 20.3) ref
 2003–2004 2347 (16.4) 40,112,380 855 14,269,430 35.6 (30.4, 40.8) 2.67 (1.99, 3.70)
 2007–2008 2311 (16.4) 40,153,846 898 15,427,421 38.4 (35.3, 41.5) 3.02 (2.32, 3.94)
 2009–2010 2450 (16.9) 41,228,734 823 14,582,297 35.4 (30.8, 40.0) 2.65 (1.95, 3.61)
 2011–2012 2146 (17.3) 42,213,815 791 16,716,965 39.6 (36.8, 42.4) 3.17 (2.45, 4.11)
 2013–2014 2456 (17.9) 43,893,633 857 15,314,527 34.9 (30.0, 39.8) 2.60 (1.89, 3.56)
Sex
 Male 7099 (49.0) 119,753,832 2614 46,199,838 38.6 (36.5, 40.7) 1.521 (1.39, 1.67)
 Female 7296 (51.0) 124,853,382 2067 36,443,142 29.2 (27.3, 31.1) ref
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 5922 (67.1) 164,017,859 2068 58,251,760 35.5 (33.3, 37.7) ref
 Non-Hispanic Black 3313 (11.7) 28,583,574 1046 601,943 31.3 (28.8, 33.8) 0.83 (0.72, 0.95)
 Mexican American 2850 (9.0) 21,996,531 887 7,054,921 32.1 (29.0, 35.2) 0.86 (0.73, 1.01)
 Other 2310 (12.3) 30,009,251 680 8,389,887 28.0 (25.1, 30.9) 0.70 (0.60, 0.83)
Age (years)
 6–11 2288 (9.2) 22,586,413 874 9,571,185 42.4 (38.8, 46.0) 1.60 (1.40, 1.83)
 12–19 2846 (12.1) 29,636,700 914 10,290,245 34.7 (31.5, 37.9) 1.16 (1.01, 1.33)
 20–59 6243 (60.0) 146,678,123 1875 46,214,496 31.5 (29.7, 33.3) ref
 60+ 3018 (18.7) 45,705,978 1018 16,567,054 36.2 (33.7, 38.7) 1.24 (1.11, 1.37)
Education
 Grade 8 or Less 4569 (18.9) 46,298,948 1585 17,680,657 38.2 (35.5, 40.9) 1.34 (1.16, 1.55)
 Grade 9–12 2615 (14.4) 35,342,844 799 10,865,543 30.7 (28.4, 33.0) 0.96 (0.84, 1.11)
 High School Graduate 2272 (18.3) 44,797,645 676 14,125,909 31.5 (28.5, 34.5) ref
 Any College 4939 (48.3) 118,167,779 1621 39,970,871 33.8 (31.8, 35.8) 1.11 (0.97, 1.27)
Poverty Income Ratio
 Up to 100% 3638 (16.6) 40,513,665 1082 12,330,209 30.4 (28.3, 32.5) 0.79 (0.71, 0.89)
 100–200% 3898 (21.5) 52,546,663 1228 16,365,202 31.1 (28.8, 33.4) 0.82 (0.73, 0.91)
 Over 200% 6859 (62.0) 151,546,887 2371 53,947,570 35.6 (33.6, 37.6) ref
Agricultural Worker
 No 14,256 (98.9) 242,014,960 4620 81,271,238 33.6 (31.9, 35.3) ref
 Yes 139 (1.1) 2,592,255 61 1,371,742 52.9 (46.3, 59.5) 2.23 (1.33, 3.73)
Smoking Status
 No 11,444 (76.3) 186,588,955 3869 66,274,113 35.5 (33.7, 37.3) ref
 Yes 2951 (23.7) 58,018,260 812 16,368,867 28.2 (25.6, 30.8) 0.71 (0.63, 0.81)
Season
 May 1–October 31 7469 (59.0) 100,371,111 2446 50,441,699 35.0 (32.5, 37.5) 1.14 (0.97, 1.33)
 November 1–April 30 6926 (41.0) 144,236,103 2235 32,201,281 32.1 (30.9, 33.3) ref
Water Source
 Water Company 8646 (84.6) 132,271,816 2669 42,110,899 31.8 (29.6, 34.0) 1.04 (0.87, 1.24)
 Well 1020 (15.4) 24,127,699 315 7,487,755 31.0 (27.3, 34.7) ref