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Table 2 Adjusted and Unadjusted Associations Between Agricultural Application of 2,4-D and NHANES Urine 2,4-D Concentrations. Legend: Unadjusted and adjusted odds of high 2,4-D urinary concentrations by agricultural use of 2,4-D, age, gender, and other key variables for NHANES participants 2001–2014

From: Association between increasing agricultural use of 2,4-D and population biomarkers of exposure: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2014

Variable All Participants Age 6–11 Age 12–20 Age 20–59 Age 60+ Female,
Age 20–44
Male,
Age 20–44
  n = 14,395 n = 2288 n = 2846 n = 6243 n = 3018 n = 2172 n = 1932
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Agricultural
2,4-D Applieda
1.85 (1.44, 2.38) 3.41 (2.18, 5.34) 1.77 (1.20, 2.60) 2.54 (1.18, 2.01) 2.47 (1.82, 3.36) 2.29 (1.54, 3.40) 1.24 (0.85, 1.80)
Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Agricultural
2,4-D Applied
2.27 (1.71, 3.01) 4.24 (2.52, 7.13) 2.38 (1.54, 3.68) 1.99 (1.45, 2.73) 2.70 (1.87, 3.91) 2.87 (1.82, 4.53) 1.55 (1.02, 2.36)
Age 1.00 (1.00, 1.01) 0.87 (0.81, 0.94) 0.93 (0.88, 0.99) 1.02 (1.01, 1.03) 1.02 (1.01, 1.04) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 1.01 (1.00–1.03)
Genderb 0.87 (0.79, 0.97) 0.94 (0.74, 1.18) 0.78 (0.62, 0.99) 0.94 (0.81, 1.10) 0.88 (0.68, 1.14)
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White ref ref ref ref ref ref ref
 Mexican American 0.83 (0.68, 1.02) 0.68 (0.49, 0.96) 0.87 (0.63, 1.18) 0.90 (0.69, 1.18) 0.75 (0.53, 1.07) 1.00 (0.66–1.51) 0.76 (0.54–1.07)
 Non-Hispanic Black 0.57 (0.48, 0.66) 0.47 (0.34, 0.64) 0.68 (0.49, 0.94) 0.52 (0.42, 0.65) 0.58 (0.45, 0.75) 0.53 (0.38–0.75) 0.45 (0.33–0.62)
 Other 0.69 (0.57, 0.82) 0.50 (0.35, 0.72) 0.77 (0.56, 1.08) 0.73 (0.56, 0.94) 0.71 (0.49, 1.04) 0.63 (0.43–0.93) 0.69 (0.49–0.98)
Poverty Income Ratio 1.06 (1.02, 1.10) 1.12 (1.04, 1.23) 1.06 (0.97, 1.16) 1.06 (1.00, 1.11) 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 1.01 (0.94–1.08)
Urine Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.01 (1.01, 1.01) 1.02 (1.01, 1.02) 1.01 (1.01, 1.01) 1.01 (1.01, 1.01) 1.01 (1.01, 1.01) 1.01 (1.01–1.01) 1.01 (1.01–1.01)
Agricultural Worker 2.11 (1.33, 3.36) 1.81 (0.64, 5.13) 2.64 (1.41, 4.94) 2.34 (0.59, 9.25) 2.26 (0.54–9.42) 2.85 (1.42–5.69)
  1. a in 10-million-pound units
  2. b female vs. male
  3. ref reference level for comparison