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Table 1 Sociodemographic and exposure characteristics of youth (n = 315) included in analysis: CHAMACOS study population, enrolled 1999–2000 in Salinas Valley, California

From: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and risk-taking behaviors in early adulthood

Covariate n (%) ∑DAPs (nmol/L)
GM ± GSD
Maternal age at delivery (years)
 18–24 128 (40.6) 145.8 ± 2.9
 25–29 107 (34.0) 123.9 ± 2.8
 30–34 51 (16.2) 131.6 ± 2.3
 35–45 29 (9.2) 112.3 ± 2.8
Maternal education at baseline
  ≤ 6th grade 141 (44.8) 127.1 ± 2.9
 7th–12th grade 111 (35.2) 123.5 ± 2.6
 High school grad or higher 63 (20.0) 164.2 ± 2.8
Years living in US prior to delivery
  ≤ 5 years 150 (47.6) 134.8 ± 2.7
  > 5 years, non-native 134 (42.5) 134.5 ± 2.8
 Born in US 31 (9.8) 113.4 ± 2.8
Marital status at baseline
 Married or living as married 262 (83.2) 130.6 ± 2.8
 Not married or living as married 53 (16.8) 141.7 ± 2.4
Maternal depression at 9-year visit (≥16 on CES-D)
 Yes 81 (25.7) 143.7 ± 2.5
 No 234 (74.3) 128.8 ± 2.8
Young adult’s sex
 Male 143 (45.4%) 140.9 ± 2.7
 Female 172 (54.6%) 125.8 ± 2.8
Household poverty at 18-year visit
 At or below poverty 129 (41.0) 119.0 ± 2.8
  > 100% poverty level 186 (59.1) 142.6 ± 2.7
  GM (GSD)  
HOME z-score at 6 months 0.02 (1.06)  
Young adult’s age at 18-year visit 18.2 (0.3)  
Total DAP concentrations (nmol/L) 132.4 ± 2.7  
Total DAP concentrations, specific gravity adjusted 171.5 ± 2.8