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Table 2 Adjusteda relative risk (RR) of risk-taking behaviors reported at 18 years per 10-fold increase in mean prenatal total urinary DAP concentrations (nmol/gL), overall and stratified by sex, in the CHAMACOS study population, enrolled 1999–2000 in Salinas Valley, California

From: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and risk-taking behaviors in early adulthood

Outcome Total N N (%) with outcome RR (95% CI)a Males RR
(95% CI)a
Females RR
(95% CI)a
p-value for interaction
Substance Use (Y/N)b
 Very drunk in last 30 days 315 30 (9.5) 0.96 (0.43, 2.15) 1.53 (0.55, 4.25) 0.65 (0.20, 2.16) 0.27
 Smoked/vaped nicotine in last 30 days 315 28 (8.9) 1.89 (1.00, 3.56) 1.46 (0.56, 3.79) 2.50 (1.10, 5.66) 0.41
 Smoked/vaped marijuana in the past last 30 days 315 78 (24.8) 1.11 (0.71, 1.73) 1.26 (0.72, 2.19) 0.99 (0.52, 1.89) 0.56
Sex (Y/N)b
 Sex before age 16 311 47 (15.1) 1.16 (0.64, 2.12) 1.91 (0.84, 4.34) 0.81 (0.34, 1.92) 0.15
 Doesn’t always use a condom 310 70 (22.6) 0.98 (0.63, 1.51) 0.91 (0.46, 1.82) 1.02 (0.59, 1.78) 0.79
Driving (Y/N)b
 Doesn’t always use seatbelt (driver or passenger) 315 102 (32.4) 1.03 (0.72, 1.45) 1.19 (0.63, 2.23) 0.94 (0.62, 1.43) 0.55
 Texts/looks at phone while driving 221 110 (49.8) 0.85 (0.63, 1.15) 0.81 (0.51, 1.27) 0.88 (0.59, 1.31) 0.77
 Drives without license (regularly) 221 96 (43.4) 1.74 (1.25, 2.42) 2.18 (1.35, 3.50) 1.46 (0.93, 2.28) 0.23
Delinquency/police encounters (Y/N)b
 Police encounters 315 77 (24.4) 1.16 (0.76, 1.78) 1.25 (0.70, 2.24) 1.07 (0.57, 2.02) 0.72
 Any delinquent act 315 221 (70.2) 0.97 (0.83, 1.13) 1.09 (0.90, 1.32) 0.88 (0.69, 1.11) 0.15
Delinquency/police encounters (counts)c   median (25–75%ile) IRR (95% CI)a Males IRR (95% CI)a Females IRR (95% CI)a  
 Police encounters 315 0 (0–0) 1.56 (0.91, 2.70) 2.10 (0.97, 4.54) 1.10 (0.51, 2.38) 0.24
 Delinquent acts: number of different types of acts 315 2 (0–6) 1.01 (0.76, 1.35) 1.29 (0.88, 1.88) 0.85 (0.56, 1.27) 0.13
 Delinquent acts: frequency of behaviors 315 8 (0–34) 1.13 (0.75, 1.69) 1.51 (0.86, 2.64) 0.90 (0.52, 1.55) 0.19
  1. a Adjusted for maternal age at delivery (continuous), years spent in the US prior to delivery (≤5 years, > 5 years but non-native, native to US), education (≤6th grade, 7th–12th grade, high school graduate), marital status at enrollment (married or living as married vs not married or living as married), and depression (< 16, ≥16 on the CES-D, assessed at the 9-year visit); HOME z-score at the 6-month visit (continuous variable); household poverty status at the time of assessment (at or below poverty level, > 100% of poverty level); and young adult’s sex and age at assessment (continuous variable)
  2. b Log risk (Poisson) models
  3. c Negative binomial models