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Table 3 Adjusteda relative risk (RR) of risk-taking behaviors reported at 18 years per 10-fold increase in mean prenatal total urinary DAP concentrations (nmol/gL) stratified by ACEs, subsetting on participants with ACEs (n = 309) and dichotomized as low ACEs (< 3; n = 220) and high ACEs (3+; n = 89), in the CHAMACOS study population, enrolled 1999–2000 in Salinas Valley, California

From: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and risk-taking behaviors in early adulthood

Outcome Total N N (%) with outcome Low ACEs RR (95% CI)a High ACEs RR (95% CI)a p-value for interaction
Substance Use (Y/N)b
 Very drunk in last 30 days 308 28 (9.1) 0.63 (0.20, 4.04) 1.11 (0.36, 3.40) 0.50
 Smoked/vaped nicotine in last 30 days 309 26 (8.4) 1.41 (0.55, 3.60) 2.49 (0.95, 6.54) 0.43
 Smoked/vaped marijuana in the past last 30 days 309 75 (24.3) 1.16 (0.65, 2.07) 0.96 (0.51, 1.79) 0.65
Sex (Y/N)b
 Sex before age 16 305 47 (15.4) 1.52 (0.78, 2.94) 0.81 (0.26, 2.56) 0.35
 Doesn’t always use a condom 305 69 (22.6) 1.00 (0.55, 1.80) 0.87 (0.43, 1.77) 0.77
Driving (Y/N)b
 Doesn’t always use seatbelt (driver or passenger) 309 98 (31.7) 0.87 (0.55, 1.37) 1.15 (0.62, 2.15) 0.49
 Texts/looks at phone while driving 215 106 (49.3) 0.81 (0.55, 1.18) 0.88 (0.54, 1.42) 0.78
 Drives without license (regularly) 215 91 (42.3) 1.74 (1.09, 2.75) 1.61 (0.98, 2.65) 0.83
Delinquency/police encounters (Y/N)b
 Police encounters 309 75 (24.3) 1.10 (0.59, 2.06) 1.22 (0.69, 2.15) 0.81
 Any delinquent act 309 217 (70.2) 1.01 (0.83, 1.24) 0.87 (0.67, 1.12) 0.34
Delinquency/police encounters (counts)c   median (25–75%ile) Low ACEs IRR (95% CI)a High ACEs IRR (95% CI)a  
 Police encounters 309 0 (0–0) 1.39 (0.69, 2.83) 2.53 (1.07, 6.02) 0.30
 Delinquent acts: number of different types of acts 309 2 (0–6) 1.10 (0.77, 1.56) 0.98 (0.62, 1.56) 0.71
 Delinquent acts: frequency of behaviors 309 8 (0–34) 1.76 (1.06, 2.92) 0.72 (0.36, 1.45) 0.04
  1. a Adjusted for maternal age at delivery (continuous), years spent in the US prior to delivery (≤5 years, > 5 years but non-native, native to US), education (≤6th grade, 7th–12th grade, high school graduate), marital status at enrollment (married or living as married vs not married or living as married), and depression (< 16, ≥16 on the CES-D, assessed at the 9-year visit); HOME z-score at the 6-month visit (continuous variable); household poverty status at the time of assessment (at or below poverty level, > 100% of poverty level); and young adult’s sex and age at assessment (continuous variable)
  2. b Log risk (Poisson) models
  3. c Negative binomial models