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Table 3 Percentage change with 95% confidence interval for hospital admissions of respiratory diseases for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter, by gender, age groups, and season

From: Effects of particulate matter on hospital admissions for respiratory diseases: an ecological study based on 12.5 years of time series data in Shanghai

Respiratory diseases PM2.5 PM10
Percentage change (95%CI) P value Percentage change (95%CI) P value
Total 0.755 (0.422,1.089)   0.250 (0.042,0.459)  
Gender
 Male 0.768 (0.439,1.098) 0.255 (0.052,0.457)
 Female 0.740 (0.390,1.092) 0.909 0.244 (0.018,0.470) 0.943
Age groups, years
  < 45 −0.019(−0.418,0.382) 0.006(− 0.243,0.255)
 45– 0.701 (0.349,1.055) 0.008 0.338 (0.129,0.549) 0.046
 65– 0.865 (0.463,1.268) 0.002 0.193(−0.071,0.457) 0.312
  > =75 0.919 (0.567,1.273) 0.001 0.284 (0.058,0.510) 0.105
Season
 Cold 0.652 (0.193,1.114) 0.296(−0.010,0.603)
 Warm 0.007(−0.711,0.731) 0.803 0.182(−0.173,0.539) 0.643
COPD 1.167 (0.820,1.515)   0.361 (0.151,0.572)  
Gender
 Male 1.192 (0.840,1.544) 0.390 (0.182,0.599)
 Female 1.126 (0.747,1.507) 0.763 0.314 (0.079,0.550) 0.636
Age groups, years
  < 45 1.762 (0.769,2.765) 0.607(−0.038,1.257)
 45– 1.027 (0.546,1.510) 0.193 0.326 (0.052,0.601) 0.433
 65– 1.255 (0.827,1.685) 0.359 0.428 (0.174,0.683) 0.614
  > =75 1.157 (0.793, 1.523) 0.263 0.342 (0.120,0.565) 0.448
Season
 Cold 1.170 (0.688,1.655) 0.387 (0.077, 0.699)
 Warm 0.336 (−0.407,1.084) 0.066 0.251 (− 0.101,0.604) 0.571
Asthma 1.110 (0.513,1.710)   0.490 (0.131,0.850)  
Gender
 Male 0.915 (0.147,1.690) 0.356(−0.112,0.825)
 Female 1.278 (0.527,2.034) 0.509 0.607 (0.164,1.053) 0.452
Age groups, years
  < 45 −1.176(−2.857,0.534) 0.098(−0.851,1.056)
 45– 0.978 (0.165,1.799) 0.026 0.440(−0.019,0.901) 0.527
 65– 1.358 (0.348,2.378) 0.012 0.360(−0.330,1.055) 0.663
  > =75 2.161 (1.112,3.221) 0.001 0.935 (0.290,1.583) 0.155
Season
 Cold 1.186 (0.445,1.934) 0.534 (0.058,1.012)
 Warm −0.271(−1.500,0.974) 0.049 −0.040(− 0.670,0.594) 0.179
Pneumonia 0.842 (0.442,1.244)   0.317 (0.072,0.562)  
Gender
 Male 0.836 (0.432,1.243) 0.356 (0.113,0.602)
 Female 0.850 (0.417,1.286) 0.963 0.277 (0.006,0.549) 0.672
Age groups, years
  < 45 −0.178(−0.832,0.480)   −0.036(− 0.437,0.367)
 45– 0.966 (0.482,1.453) 0.006 0.477 (0.190,0.765) 0.042
 65– 1.129 (0.613,1.648) 0.002 0.296(−0.048,0.639) 0.219
  > =75 0.894 (0.482,1.308) 0.007 0.318 (0.058,0.580) 0.148
Season
 Cold 0.945 (0.422,1.470) 0.547 (0.201,0.895)
 Warm −0.312(−1.129,0.512) 0.012 −0.002(− 0.410,0.409) 0.045
  1. Note: Particulate matter concentration is lag 0 for total respiratory diseases and pneumonia; lag 1 for asthma and COPD