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Table 2 Differences of maternal BaP-DNA adducts, dietary vitamins, folate, and carotene levels between PB and term births

From: Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts, dietary vitamins, folate, and carotene intakes on preterm birth: a nested case–control study from the birth cohort in China

Characteristics Term births (N = 82) PBs (N = 83) Pa
Mean SD Mean SD
 BaP-DNA adducts (µg/gDNA) 3.21 0.83 3.56 1.46 0.058
Vitamin C (mg)b
 Preconception 105.4 37.5 95.0 32.4 0.08
 1st trimester 104.7 36.1 97.7 31.8 0.21
 2nd trimester 105.1 36.0 98.5 33.2 0.25
 3rd trimester 104.1 40.0 98.2 32.0 0.30
Vitamin A (µg RE)b
 Preconception 579.2 130.6 511.0 160.9 0.0059
 1st trimester 587.3 141.3 536.3 162.3 0.044
 2nd trimester 589.0 142.4 541.2 190.0 0.091
 3rd trimester 585.5 150.7 535.5 164.7 0.057
Vitamin E (mg)b
 Preconception 20.9 10.7 17.3 9.7 0.035
 1st trimester 20.8 10.6 17.7 9.7 0.062
 2nd trimester 21.0 10.6 17.8 15.6 0.052
 3rd trimester 20.5 9.2 17.8 9.7 0.07
Folate (µg)b
 Preconception 189.9 80.4 162.8 76.7 0.043
 1st trimester 189.9 78.4 165.7 74.7 0.058
 2nd trimester 191.1 77.8 169.5 82.1 0.10
 3rd trimester 186.4 68.2 168.2 73.8 0.12
Carotene (µg)b
 Preconception 3037.9 728.2 2689.8 897.0 0.012
 1st trimester 3008.4 738.0 2727.4 844.4 0.034
 2nd trimester 3035.1 738.9 2795.1 1045.6 0.12
 3rd trimester 3029.3 765.4 2762.9 851.8 0.048
Supplement intake times among ever users, N (term, PB)
 Preconception & during pregnancy (67, 66) 561.3 272.1 515.9 250.1 0.32
 Preconception (23,23) 64.5 24.5 124.2 98.4 0.009
 1st trimester (60, 59) 297.6 85.5 297.1 71.9 0.97
 2nd trimester (46, 35) 233.0 115.6 213.5 115.8 0.45
 3rd trimester (37, 31) 203.9 106.5 199.9 101.6 0.87
  1. aCalculated by t-test
  2. Abbreviations PB Preterm birth, BaP benzo[a]Pyrene, SD Standard deviation