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Table 5 Associations between maternal BaP-DNA adducts and risk of PB stratified by mean levels of dietary vitamins, folate, and carotene during different pregnancy windows with additional adjustment for supplementation

From: Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts, dietary vitamins, folate, and carotene intakes on preterm birth: a nested case–control study from the birth cohort in China

BaP-DNA adducts (µg/gDNA) Preconception & During pregnancy During pregnancy only Preconception only
 ≤ Mean levels  > Mean levels  ≤ Mean levels  > Mean levels  ≤ Mean levels  > Mean levels
ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI ORa 95%CI
Vitamin C
 Per interquartile increase 1.32 0.88, 1.98 1.46 0.84, 2.55 1.31 0.87, 1.98 1.38 0.82, 2.34 1.52 0.92, 2.52 1.34 0.86, 2.10
  > 3.21 compared to ≤ 3.21 2.35 0.90, 6.13 2.44 0.73, 8.20 2.28 0.88, 5.90 2.13 0.68, 6.65 5.21 1.38, 19.75 1.99 0.76, 5.23
Vitamin A
 Per interquartile increase 1.13 0.74, 1.73 1.40 0.84, 2.34 1.18 0.76, 1.81 1.45 0.87, 2.39 1.24 0.80, 1.92 1.23 0.74, 2.06
  > 3.21 compared to ≤ 3.21 2.11 0.78, 5.73 2.12 0.70, 6.39 2.12 0.77, 5.85 2.63 0.89, 7.71 2.72 0.97, 7.62 1.58 0.49, 5.11
Vitamin E
 Per interquartile increase 1.36 0.94, 1.97 1.51 0.78, 2.91 1.45 1.00, 2.10 1.34 0.71, 2.55 1.59 1.03, 2.46 1.55 0.87, 2.77
  > 3.21 compared to ≤ 3.21 2.97 1.27, 6.94 1.38 0.32, 5.92 3.07 1.31, 7.23 1.19 0.29, 4.97 4.92 1.73, 14.01 1.47 0.44, 4.88
Folate
 Per interquartile increase 1.52 1.00, 2.30 1.66 0.86, 3.18 1.66 1.09, 2.53 1.41 0.75, 2.63 1.37 0.92, 2.06 1.67 0.97, 3.63
  > 3.21 compared to ≤ 3.21 3.36 1.32, 8.57 1.79 0.45, 7.20 3.71 1.45, 9.50 1.35 0.34, 5.34 2.70 1.10, 6.62 3.17 0.72, 14.02
Carotene
 Per interquartile increase 1.16 0.77, 1.76 1.36 0.80, 2.32 1.20 0.79, 1.83 1.37 0.81, 2.31 1.21 0.79, 1.86 1.25 0.74, 2.10
  > 3.21 compared to ≤ 3.21 1.99 0.77, 5.15 2.10 0.63, 7.05 2.27 0.86, 6.06 2.12 0.68, 6.59 2.34 0.87, 6.29 1.60 0.47, 5.46
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age, education, family income per month, maternal BMI, passive smoking, parity, C-section, newborn gender, activity, employment during pregnancy, and supplementation status
  2. Abbreviations: PB Preterm birth, BaP Benzo[a]Pyrene, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence interval