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Table 1 Studies included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (N = 26)

From: What is the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and possible obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis

First author
(year), country
Study
design
N Recruitment Participants Sex Exposure
variable
Outcome
measures
Number of outcome events/ cases Comparison
Anuntaseree (2001), Thailand Cross-sectional 1142 Community Children aged 6–13 years Boys and girls Household smoking Ali’s questionnaire Smoking in household: 47; non-smoking in household: 38 Habitual snoring: most nights
Brunetti (2001), Italy Cross-sectional 1207 Community Children aged 3–11 years Boys and girls Passive smoking PSG Passive smoking: 4; non passive smoking: 10 AHI > 3
Castronovo (2002), Australia Cross-sectional 604 Community Children aged 2–8 years Boys and girls Passive smoking Snoring questionnaire Passive smoking: 80; non passive smoking: 74 Habitual snoring: always and often
Corbo (1989), Italy Cross-sectional 940 Community Children aged 6–13 years Boys and girls Parental smoking Snoring questionnaire Parental smoking exposure: 82; non parental smoking exposure: 36 Habitual snoring: snoring often
Corbo (2001), Italy Cross-sectional 2209 Community Children aged 10–15 years Boys and girls Parental smoking Snoring questionnaire Parental smoking exposure: 89; non parental smoking exposure: 34 Habitual snoring: snoring often
Ersu (2004), Turkey Cross-sectional 2147 Community Children aged 5–13 years Boys and girls Paternal smoking Brouillette’s questionnaire Paternal smoking exposure: 21; non- paternal smoking exposure: 5 High risk of OSAS: the questionnaire criteria by Brouillette et al
Franklin (2004), Sweden Cross-sectional 15,555 Community Adult (25–54 years) Men and women combined Passive smoking Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire Passive smoking exposure: 86; non-passive smoking exposure: 807 Habitual snoring: loud and disturbing snoring at least 3 nights a week
Gill (2012), New Zealand Cross-sectional 823 Community Children aged 3 years 0 months to 3 years 12 months Boys and girls Household smoking Goldstein’s questionnaire NR Habitual snoring: often (4–6 night/week) or always (every night/day)
Gozal (2008), USA Cross-sectional 16,321 Community Children aged 5–7 years Boys and girls Household smoking Gozal’s sleep questionnaire Household smoking: 666; non household smoking: 1178 Habitual snoring: almost always (> 4 nights/week) or always on snoring frequency and medium loud to loud on loudness of snoring
Huang (2019), China Retrospective 209 Clinic Older than 18 years Men and women combined SHS PSG SHS exposure: 87; non- SHS exposure: 61 AHI5
Kaditis (2004), Greece Cross-sectional 3666 Community Children and adolescents aged 1–18 years Boys and girls Passive smoking Brouilette’s questionnaire Passive smoking exposure:106; non passive smoking exposure: 48 Habitual snoring: snoring every night
Kannan (2017), USA Prospective cohort 609 Community Child at age 4 Boys and girls SHS Snoring questionnaire SHS exposure: 52; non-SHS exposure: 77 Habitual snoring 3 nights/week
Kheirandish-Gozal (2014), Iran Cross-sectional 6000 Community Children aged 6–12 years Boys and girls Parental smoking Gozal’s sleep questionnaire NR Habitual snoring 3 nights/week
First author (year), country Study design N Recruitment Participants Sex Exposure variable Outcome Measures Number of outcome events/ cases Comparison
Kuehni (2008), UK Cross-sectional 3245 Community Children aged 1–4 years Boys and girls Parental smoking Corbo’s questionnaire Parental smoking exposure: 241; non-parental smoking exposure: 290 Habitual snoring: snoring almost always
Li AM (2010), Hong Kong Cross-sectional 9172 Community Children aged 5–14 years Boys and girls Household smoking Hong Kong Children Sleep Questionnaire Household smoking: 143; non household snoring: 311 Habitual snoring: frequently, three nights or more per week
Li S (2010), China Cross-sectional 20,152 Community Children aged 5.08–11.99 years Boys and girls Household passive smoking Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire Household passive smoking: 666; non household passive smoking: 1750 Habitual snoring: frequently (2–4 nights/week) or always (5–7 nights/week)
Nosetti (2011), Italy Case–control 1610 Community Children aged 0–14 years Boys and girls SHS PSG SHS exposure: 274; non-SHS exposure: 306 AHI (NR)
Ohida (2007), Japan Cross-sectional 19,386 Clinic Pregnant women Women SHS 7 items questionnaire SHSexposure: 10,269; non-SHS exposure: 9023 Snoring (often or always)
Owen (1996), Cross-sectional 245 Community Children aged 0–11 years Boys and girls Parental smoking Owen’s questionnaire Parental smoking exposure: 39; non parental smoking exposure: 27 Snoring (sometimes or often)
Sahin (2009), Turkey Cross-sectional 1605 Community Children aged 7–13 years Boys and girls Household smoking Ersu’s questionnaire Household smoking: 28; non household smoking: 14 Habitual snoring: frequently or almost every day
Sogut (2005), Turkey Cross-sectional 1344 Community Children aged 3–11 years Boys and girls Passive smoking PSG Passive smoking: 11; non passive smoking: 4 AHI > 3
Sogut (2009), Turkey Cross-sectional 1030 Community Adolescents aged 12–17 Boys and girls Exposure to father smoking 55-item questionnaire Exposure to father smoking: 25; non-father smoking: 16 Habitual snoring: often and always
Urschitz (2004), Germany Cross-sectional 1760 Community Children aged 9 ± 0.7 years Boys and girls Household smoking Sleep-disordered breathing questionnaire Household smoking: 62; non household smoking: 50 Habitual snoring: frequently and always
Włodarska (2020), Poland Cross-sectional 160 Community Children aged 6–18 years Boys and girls Exposure to tobacco smoke at home PSG Exposure group: 17; non exposure group: 3 Children aged < 13 years, AHI > 1.5; children aged > 13, AHI > 5
Zhang (2004), Australia Cross-sectional 985 School Children aged 4–12 years Boys and girls Household smoking Rumchev’s questionnaire Household smoking exposure: 84; non-household smoking exposure: 65 Habitual snoring more than 4 times/week
Zhu (2013), Hong Kong Cross-sectional 2954 Community population Preschool children aged 2–6 years Boys and girls Household smoking The Hong Kong Paediatric Sleep Survey household smoking exposure: 52; non-household smoking exposure: 68 Habitual snoring 3 nights/week
  1. SHS Secondhand Smoke, AHI Apnea–Hypopnea Index, PSG Polysomnography, NR Not reported