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Table 3 Subgroup analysis of the risk ratio for adults or children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS)

From: What is the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and possible obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis

Subgroup Pooled risk ratio 95% confidence interval
Study participants
Adults
Franklin (2004), Sweden 1.48 1.21 - 1.81
Huang (2019), China 1.35 1.12 - 1.61
Ohida (2007), Japan 1.26 1.05 - 1.51
Subtotal 1.35 1.21 - 1.50
Children
Anuntaseree (2001), Thailand   
Brunetti (2011), Italy   
Castronovo (2002), Australia   
Corbo (1989), Italy 1.72 1.19 - 2.49
Corbo (2001), Italy   
Ersu (2004), Turkey 3.53 1.34 - 9.30
Gill (2012), New Zealand 1.60 0.90 - 2.90
Gozal (2008), USA   
Kaditis (2004), Greece 1.89 1.35 - 2.64
Kannan (2017), USA 2.00 1.48 - 2.70
Kheirandish-Gozal (2014), Iran 2.25 1.44 - 3.66
Kuehni (2008), UK 1.67 1.43 - 1.95
Li AM (2010), Hong Kong   
Li S (2010), China   
Nosetti (2011), Italy 2.31 2.04 - 2.61
Owen (1996), UK 1.83 1.20 - 2.79
Sahin (2009), Turkey   
Sogut (2005), Turkey   
Sogut (2009), Turkey 1.56 0.85 - 2.87
Urschitz (2004), Germany   
Włodarska (2020), Poland 4.41 1.34 - 14.44
Zhang (2004), Australia 1.62 1.21 - 2.16
Zhu (2013), Hong Kong 1.34 0.95 - 1.88
Subtotal 1.44 1.37 - 1.51