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Table 4 Subgroup analysis of risk ratio based on participants expose to father smoking or mother smoking

From: What is the association between secondhand smoke (SHS) and possible obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis

Subgroup Pooled risk ratio 95% confidence interval
Study participants
Father smoker
Anuntaseree (2001), Thailand 1.10 0.78 - 1.57
Ersu (2004), Turkey 3.53 1.34 - 9.30
Gill (2012), New Zealand 1.70 1.00 - 2.80
Sahin (2009), Turkey 1.62 0.89 - 2.93
Sogut (2009), Turkey 1.56 0.85 - 2.87
Subtotal 1.43 1.13 - 1.81
Mother smoker
Brunetti (2011), Italy 9.75 3.22 - 29.56
Ersu (2004), Turkey 3.48 1.61 - 7.51
Gill (2012), New Zealand 1.70 1.00 - 3.00
Li S (2010), China 1.65 1.34 - 2.02
Sahin (2009), Turkey 1.63 0.82 - 3.24
Sogut (2005), Turkey 2.19 0.70 - 6.84
Sogut (2009), Turkey 2.17 1.18 - 4.00
Subtotal 1.84 1.55 - 2.18