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  1. Although the association between exposure to particulate matter and health is well established, there remains uncertainty as to whether certain chemical components are more harmful than others. We explored whe...

    Authors: Antonella Zanobetti, Meredith Franklin, Petros Koutrakis and Joel Schwartz

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:58

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. The quantification of uncertainty and variability is a key component of quantitative risk analysis. Recent advances in Bayesian statistics make it ideal for integrating multiple sources of information, of diff...

    Authors: Marc C Kennedy, Helen E Clough and Joanne Turner

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S19

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  3. This Environment and Human Health project aims to develop a health-based summary measure of multiple physical environmental deprivation for the UK, akin to the measures of multiple socioeconomic deprivation th...

    Authors: Elizabeth A Richardson, Richard J Mitchell, Niamh K Shortt, Jamie Pearce and Terence P Dawson

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S18

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  4. Bacterial pathogens are ubiquitous in soil and water - concurrently so are free-living helminths that feed on bacteria. These helminths fall into two categories; the non-parasitic and the parasitic. The former...

    Authors: Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Vyv Salisbury, Tom J Humphrey, Kathryn Stafford and Sarah E Perkins

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  5. Understanding how risks to human health change as a result of seasonal variations in environmental conditions is likely to become of increasing importance in the context of climatic change, especially in lower...

    Authors: Roger Few, Iain Lake, Paul R Hunter, Pham Gia Tran and Vu Trong Thien

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  6. Are pathogens in outdoor air a health issue at present or will they become a problem in the future? A working group called AirPath - Outdoor Environments and Human Pathogens in Air was set up in 2007 at Universit...

    Authors: Ka man Lai, Jean Emberlin and Ian Colbeck

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S15

    Content type: Review and recommendations

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  7. The aetiology of type 1 diabetes in children is uncertain. A number of recent studies have suggested an infectious aetiology. It has been postulated that an infectious agent may be involved. Support for this h...

    Authors: Richard JQ McNally, Raymond Pollock, Simon Court, Mike Begon and Tim D Cheetham

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  8. Global food insecurity is associated with micronutrient deficiencies and it has been suggested that 4.5 billion people world-wide are affected by deficiencies in iron, vitamin A and iodine. Zinc has also been ...

    Authors: Natalie Dickinson, John Gulliver, Gordon MacPherson, John Atkinson, Jean Rankin, Maria Cummings, Zoe Nisbet, Andrew Hursthouse, Avril Taylor, Chris Robertson and Wolfgang Burghardt

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S13

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  9. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria commonly develop in fresh-, brackish- and marine waters and effective strategies for monitoring and managing cyanobacterial health risks are required to safegu...

    Authors: Andrew N Tyler, Peter D Hunter, Laurence Carvalho, Geoffrey A Codd, J Alex Elliott, Claire A Ferguson, Nick D Hanley, David W Hopkins, Stephen C Maberly, Kathryn J Mearns and E Marion Scott

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S11

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  10. Wild plants harbour a variety of viruses and these have the potential to alter the composition of pollen. The potential consequences of virus infection of grasses on pollen-induced allergic disease are not known.

    Authors: Denise W Pallett, Emily Soh, Mary-Lou Edwards, Kathleen Bodey, Laurie CK Lau, J Ian Cooper, Peter H Howarth, Andrew F Walls and Hui Wang

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S10

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  11. This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facili...

    Authors: Lewis Deacon, Louise Pankhurst, Jian Liu, Gillian H Drew, Enda T Hayes, Simon Jackson, James Longhurst, Philip Longhurst, Simon Pollard and Sean Tyrrel

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S9

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  12. We describe a project to quantify the burden of heat and ozone on mortality in the UK, both for the present-day and under future emission scenarios.

    Authors: Ruth M Doherty, Mathew R Heal, Paul Wilkinson, Sam Pattenden, Massimo Vieno, Ben Armstrong, Richard Atkinson, Zaid Chalabi, Sari Kovats, Ai Milojevic and David S Stevenson

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S8

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  13. Studies of disinfection by-products in drinking water and measures of adverse fetal growth have often been limited by exposure assessment lacking data on individual water use, and therefore failing to reflect ...

    Authors: Rachel B Smith, Mireille B Toledano, John Wright, Pauline Raynor and Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S7

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  14. Compelling evidence of major health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and outdoor interaction with 'greenspace' have emerged in the past decade - all of which combine to give majo...

    Authors: Jonathan R Leake, Andrew Adam-Bradford and Janette E Rigby

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S6

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  15. A methodology is presented and validated through which long-term fixed site air quality measurements are used to characterise and remove temporal signals in sample-based measurements which have good spatial co...

    Authors: Paul Harris, Sarah Lindley, Martin Gallagher and Raymond Agius

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S5

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  16. An exploratory XPS and FTIR investigation of the surfaces of bulk quartz powders widely used in toxicological studies (DQ12 and Min-U-Sil 5) was carried with the aim of correlating surface features with toxici...

    Authors: Stephen M Francis, W Edryd Stephens and Neville V Richardson

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S4

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  17. The aim of this project was to compare cerium oxide and silver particles of different sizes for their potential for uptake by aquatic species, human exposure via ingestion of contaminated food sources and to a...

    Authors: Birgit K Gaiser, Teresa F Fernandes, Mark Jepson, Jamie R Lead, Charles R Tyler and Vicki Stone

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S2

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  18. The Joint Environment and Human Health (E&HH) Programme has explored how both man-made and natural changes to the environment can influence human health. Scientists have tackled the complicated mix of environm...

    Authors: Michael N Moore and Pamela D Kempton

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8(Suppl 1):S1

    Content type: Introduction

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 8 Supplement 1

  19. For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usuall...

    Authors: Peter KM Jensen, Pham D Phuc, Flemming Konradsen, Lise T Klank and Anders Dalsgaard

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:57

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  20. We evaluated the impact of migration to the USA-Mexico border city of El Paso, Texas (USA), parental language preference, and Hispanic ethnicity on childhood asthma to differentiate between its social and envi...

    Authors: Erik R Svendsen, Melissa Gonzales, Mary Ross and Lucas M Neas

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:55

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  21. In spite of decades of epidemiological research, the etiology and causal patterns for many common diseases, such as breast and colon cancer or neurodegenerative diseases, are still largely unknown. Such chroni...

    Authors: Paolo Vineis, Aneire E Khan, Jelle Vlaanderen and Roel Vermeulen

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:54

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  22. Cyanobacteria can produce groups of structurally and functionally unrelated but highly potent toxins. Cyanotoxins are used in multiple research endeavours, either for direct investigation of their toxicologic ...

    Authors: Ian Stewart, Wayne W Carmichael, Ross Sadler, Glenn B McGregor, Karen Reardon, Geoffrey K Eaglesham, Wasantha A Wickramasinghe, Alan A Seawright and Glen R Shaw

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:52

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  23. Unprocessed biomass fuel is the primary source of indoor air pollution (IAP) in developing countries. The use of biomass fuel has been linked with acute respiratory infections. This study assesses sources of v...

    Authors: Abera Kumie, Anders Emmelin, Sonny Wahlberg, Yemane Berhane, Ahmed Ali, Eyassu Mekonen, Alemayehu Worku and Doris Brandstrom

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:51

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  24. Few studies have identified specific factors that increase mortality during heat waves. This study investigated socio-demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions as effect modifiers of the ...

    Authors: Patrizia Schifano, Giovanna Cappai, Manuela De Sario, Paola Michelozzi, Claudia Marino, Anna Maria Bargagli and Carlo A Perucci

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:50

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receiv...

    Authors: Ana C Espinosa, Carlos F Arias, Salvador Sánchez-Colón and Marisa Mazari-Hiriart

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:49

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  26. Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness, diminish obesity, and reduce noise, air pollution, and greenhouse gases associated with travel. However, bicyclists incur a higher risk of injuries requiring hos...

    Authors: Conor CO Reynolds, M Anne Harris, Kay Teschke, Peter A Cripton and Meghan Winters

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:47

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  27. Community concern about asthma prompted an epidemiological study of children living near a petrochemical refinery in Cape Town, South Africa. Because of resource constraints and the complexity of refinery emis...

    Authors: Neil White, Jim teWaterNaude, Anita van der Walt, Grant Ravenscroft, Wesley Roberts and Rodney Ehrlich

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:45

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. Prior animal and human studies of prenatal exposure to solvents including tetrachloroethylene (PCE) have shown increases in the risk of certain congenital anomalies among exposed offspring.

    Authors: Ann Aschengrau, Janice M Weinberg, Patricia A Janulewicz, Lisa G Gallagher, Michael R Winter, Veronica M Vieira, Thomas F Webster and David M Ozonoff

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:44

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has trigg...

    Authors: Ian Fairlie

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:43

    Content type: Commentary

    Published on:

  30. Studies have shown that the effects of particulate matter on health vary based on factors including the vulnerability of the population, health care practices, exposure factors, and the pollutant mix.

    Authors: Valerie B Haley, Thomas O Talbot and Henry D Felton

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:42

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Telomere shortening in blood leukocytes has been associated with increased morbidity and death from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but determinants of shortened telomeres, a molecular feature of biological...

    Authors: Mirjam Hoxha, Laura Dioni, Matteo Bonzini, Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Silvia Fustinoni, Domenico Cavallo, Michele Carugno, Benedetta Albetti, Barbara Marinelli, Joel Schwartz, Pier Alberto Bertazzi and Andrea Baccarelli

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:41

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. The Seveso, Italy accident in 1976 caused the contamination of a large population by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Possible long-term effects have been examined through mortality and cancer incid...

    Authors: Angela Cecilia Pesatori, Dario Consonni, Maurizia Rubagotti, Paolo Grillo and Pier Alberto Bertazzi

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:39

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  33. Results from studies of road traffic noise and hypertension are heterogeneous with respect to effect size, effects among males and females and with respect to effects across age groups. Our objective was to fu...

    Authors: Theo Bodin, Maria Albin, Jonas Ardö, Emilie Stroh, Per-Olof Östergren and Jonas Björk

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:38

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  34. Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s-70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have...

    Authors: Julie R Palmer, Arthur L Herbst, Kenneth L Noller, Deborah A Boggs, Rebecca Troisi, Linda Titus-Ernstoff, Elizabeth E Hatch, Lauren A Wise, William C Strohsnitter and Robert N Hoover

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:37

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Only a few studies have investigated non-malignant respiratory effects of glass microfibers and these have provided inconsistent results. Our objective was to assess the effects of exposure to glass microfiber...

    Authors: Penpatra Sripaiboonkij, Nintita Sripaiboonkij, Wantanee Phanprasit and Maritta S Jaakkola

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:36

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974) resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. B...

    Authors: Metrecia L Terrell, Alissa K Berzen, Chanley M Small, Lorraine L Cameron, Julie J Wirth and Michele Marcus

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:35

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Possible physiological causes for the effect of sunlight on mood are through the suprachiasmatic nuclei and evidenced by serotonin and melatonin regulation and its associations with depression. Cognitive funct...

    Authors: Shia T Kent, Leslie A McClure, William L Crosson, Donna K Arnett, Virginia G Wadley and Nalini Sathiakumar

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:34

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  38. Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides, is widespread among the general population. There is evidence of adverse effects on reproduc...

    Authors: John D Meeker, Stacey A Missmer, Larisa Altshul, Allison F Vitonis, Louise Ryan, Daniel W Cramer and Russ Hauser

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:32

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Freon includes a number of gaseous, colorless chlorofluorocarbons. Although freon is generally considered to be a fluorocarbon of relatively low toxicity; significantly detrimental effects may occur upon over ...

    Authors: Laila ME Sabik, Reem A Abbas, Mahmoud M Ismail and Safwat El-Refaei

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:31

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Higher exposure to outdoor air pollution is associated with increased cardiopulmonary deaths, but there is limited evidence about the association between outdoor air pollution and diagnosed cardiovascular dise...

    Authors: Lindsay JL Forbes, Minal D Patel, Alicja R Rudnicka, Derek G Cook, Tony Bush, John R Stedman, Peter H Whincup, David P Strachan and HR Anderson

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:30

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  41. Decades of improper disposal of uranium-mining wastes on the Navajo Nation has resulted in adverse human and ecological health impacts as well as socio-cultural problems. As the Navajo people become increasing...

    Authors: Jamie L deLemos, Doug Brugge, Miranda Cajero, Mallery Downs, John L Durant, Christine M George, Sarah Henio-Adeky, Teddy Nez, Thomas Manning, Tommy Rock, Bess Seschillie, Chris Shuey and Johnnye Lewis

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:29

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that exposure to vehicular traffic increases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and may exacerbate pre-existing asthma in children. Self-reported exposure to ...

    Authors: Enrica Migliore, Giovanna Berti, Claudia Galassi, Neil Pearce, Francesco Forastiere, Roberto Calabrese, Lucio Armenio, Annibale Biggeri, Luigi Bisanti, Massimiliano Bugiani, Ennio Cadum, Elisabetta Chellini, Valerio Dell'Orco, Gabriele Giannella, Piersante Sestini, Giuseppe Corbo…

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:27

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  43. There are several known factors that cause ischemic heart disease. However, the part played by air pollution still remains something of a mystery. Recent attention has focused on the chronic effect of particul...

    Authors: Zhiyong Hu and K Ranga Rao

    Citation: Environmental Health 2009 8:26

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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