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Table 6 Effects of distance of residence to main road on respiratory symptoms/diseases and dichotomized test outcomes: OR and 95% CI.

From: Geographical information system and environmental epidemiology: a cross-sectional spatial analysis of the effects of traffic-related air pollution on population respiratory health

  Males Females
  <100 m 100-250 m <100 m 100-250 m
Persistent wheeze 1.76 * (1.08-2.87) 1.54 # (0.94-2.53) 1.32 (0.76-2.28) 0.77 (0.42-1.42)
Dyspnea 0.88 (0.55-1.41) 0.86 (0.59-1.53) 1.61 ** (1.13-2.27) 1.35 # (0.95-1.93)
COPD 1.80 * (1.03-3.08) 1.21 (0.69-2.13) 1.60 (0.71-3.59) 0.99 (0.39-2.51)
Asthma 1.59 (0.85-2.98) 1.55 (0.83-2.87) 1.68 # (0.97-2.88) 0.58 (0.30-1.15)
Attacks of shortness of breath with wheeze 1.47 (0.87-2.48) 1.20 (0.70-2.04) 1.67 # (0.98-2.84) 0.74 (0.39-1.38)
Skin test_5 mm pos. 1.07 (0.67-1.72) 1.10 (0.70-1.73) 1.83 * (1.11-3.00) 0.95 (0.57-1.60)
FEV1/FVC% <70% 2.07 * (1.11-3.87) 2.53 ** (1.42-4.53) 1.01 (0.48-2.14) 0.88 (0.41-1.89)
FEV1/VC% <70% 1.15 (0.63-2.11) 1.76 * (1.02-3.04) 0.84 (0.40-1.72) 0.48 (0.21-1.11)
  1. † OR adjusted for age, educational level, smoking habits, passive smoking exposure, occupational exposure, working position, number of hours spent at home and time of residence, calculated with subjects living between 250-800 m as the reference group
  2. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, # 0.05 < p < 0.1 (borderline)