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Table 1 Basic and nutritional factors among children

From: Regular Breakfast and Blood Lead Levels among Preschool Children

  Regular breakfast?   
Characteristics No Yes P value Total
Blood lead level (μg/dL)     
Median (P5,P95) + 7.2 (2.9, 12.8) 6.1 (2.7,10.9) 0.008 6.2 (2.8,10.9)
> = 10 μg/dL, n(%) 8 (10.4) 92 (7.9) 0.43 100 (8.0)
Gender    0.63  
Boy 40 (51.9) 639 (54.8)   679 (54.6)
Girl 37 (48.1) 527 (45.2)   564 (45.4)
Age    0.08  
3 23 (31.2) 314 (26.9)   337 (27.1)
4 18 (23.4) 419 (35.9)   438 (35.2)
5 35 (45.4) 433 (37.2)   468 (37.7)
School Area    0.03  
Urban 25 (32.5) 478 (41.0)   503 (40.4)
Suburban 27 (35.1) 454 (38.9)   481 (38.7)
Rural 25 (32.5) 234 (20.1)   259 (20.8)
Father's education    0.0002  
Less than high school 46 (59.8) 438 (37.6)   484 (38.9)
High school 21 (27.3) 378 (32.4)   399 (32.1)
College & University 10 (13.0) 350 (30.0)   360 (29.0)
Mother's education    0.0003  
Less than high school 56 (72.3) 575 (49.3)   631 (50.8)
High school 15 (19.5) 351 (30.1)   366 (29.4)
College & University 6 (7.8) 240 (20.6)   246 (19.8)
Father's occupation    0.005  
Unemployed 3 (3.9) 46 (3.9)   49 (3.9)
General labor 50 (64.9) 595 (51.0)   645 (51.9)
Technician/Professional 15 (19.5) 450 (38.6)   465 (37.5)
Other 9 (11.7) 75 (6.4)   84 (6.8)
Mother's occupation    0.04  
Unemployed 3 (3.9) 67 (5.8)   70 (5.6)
General labor 37 (48.1) 475 (40.7)   512 (41.2)
Technician/Professional 12 (15.6) 344 (29.5)   356 (28.6)
Other 25 (32.5) 280 (24.0)   305 (24.5)
Parents divorces or separated    0.89  
Yes 3 (4.6) 46 (4.3)   49 (4.3)
No 62(95.4) 1030 (95.7)   1092 (95.7)
Grandfather's education    0.007  
None 17 (22.1) 139 (11.9)   156 (12.6)
< = 9 years 29 (37.7) 591 (50.7)   620 (49.9)
> 9 years 31 (40.3) 436 (37.4)   467 (37.5)
Grandmother's education    0.01  
None 22 (28.6) 209 (17.9)   231 (18.6)
< = 9 years 19 (24.7) 483 (41.4)   502 (40.3)
> 9 years 36 (46.7) 474 (40.7)   512 (41.1)
Passive smoking    0.34  
Yes 46 (59.8) 632 (54.2)   678 (54.5)
No 31 (40.2) 534 (45.8)   565 (45.5)
Feeding method (during the first year)    0.42  
Breast feeding 63 (82.9) 889 (76.5)   952 (76.9)
Bottle (formula) feeding 5 (6.6) 92 (7.9)   97 (7.8)
Mixed 8 (10.5) 181 (15.6)   189 (16.3)
Breakfast type    0.12  
Noodle/Rice 50 (78.1) 760 (69.1)   810 (69.9)
Mixed 14 (21.9) 340 (30.9)   354 (30.1)
Calcium     
Mean ± SD 1.66 ± 0.21 1.64 ± 0.19 0.45 1.64 ± 0.24
Number of deficiency (%) 31 (40.3) 452 (38.8) 0.79 483 (38.9)
Cu     
Mean ± SD 26.96 ± 7.10 27.03 ± 6.80 0.83 27.05 ± 6.64
Number of deficiency (%) 1 (1.3) 6 (0.5) 0.34 7 (0.6)
Fe     
Mean ± SD 8.12 ± 0.87 8.13 ± 0.84 0.68 8.13 ± 0.83
Number of deficiency (%) 21 (27.3) 280 (24.0) 0.51 301 (24.2)
Mg     
Mean ± SD 1.50 ± 0.17 1.47 ± 0.16 0.10 1.47 ± 0.16
Number of deficiency (%) 0 4 (0.3) 0.61 4 (0.3)
Zn**,+     
Mean ± SD 78.25 ± 12.51 82.70 ± 13.27 0.008 82.46 ± 13.40
Number of deficiency (%) 41 (53.2) 436 (37.4) 0.006 477 (38.3)
  1. , P value, comparison between children with and without regular breakfast; +, P < 0.01, Wilcoxon test (covariates were not adjusted)