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Table 7 Individual study and pooled bias-adjusted effect estimates comparing diesel exposed versus non-exposed and their 95% C.I.'s.

From: Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies

Study Bias Adjusted Estimate 95% C.I.
Human studies   
Garshick et al. [18] 1.24 1.16 - 1.31
Wellmann et al. [19] 1.88 1.57 - 2.19
Gustavsson et al. [20] 1.76 1.15 - 2.37
Pooled Fixeda 1.279 1.207 - 1.351
  Random 1.594 1.086 - 2.101
  Random without bias adjustment 1.727 1.218 - 2.236
Animal studies   
Nikula et al. [31] 1.43 0.95 - 1.90
Brightwell et al. [29] 1.25 0.83 - 1.67
Mauderly et al. [32] 1.58 0.84 - 2.31
Pooled Fixed 1.365 1.075 - 1.654
  Random 1.365 1.075 - 1.654
All studies (pooled estimate)   
Fixeda 1.284 1.215 - 1.354
Random 1.492 1.210 - 1.775
Random without bias adjustment 1.586 1.279 - 1.892
  1. a significant heterogeneity