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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and risk factors for hypertension in the three study groups

From: High-frequency hearing loss, occupational noise exposure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in male workers

Characteristics Hearing loss groups P-value
  High Median Low  
Subjects (no.) 214 302 274  
Age (years)     
   Mean (SD) 41.4 (7.1)d, e 38.1 (5.6) 37.4 (6.7) < 0.001a
Environmental noise (dBA)     
   Mean (SD) 83.1 (4.9)d 83.1 (4.4)d 82.2 (5.1) < 0.001a
Employment duration (years)     
   Mean (SD) 10.4 (6.0) 9.8 (5.1) 9.1 (5.4) 0.192a
Body Mass Index (kg/m2)     
   Mean (SD) 24.4 (3.2) 23.9 (3.0) 24.0 (3.2) 0.250a
Total cholesterol level (mg/dL)     
   Mean (SD) 185.7 (33.1) 188.4 (38.5) 183.4 (35.4) 0.372a
Triglyceride level (mg/dL)     
   Mean (SD) 153.2 (100.6) 147.2 (69.5) 149.9 (84.9) 0.584a
Educational level     
   < 12 years (%) 143 (66.8) 177 (58.6) 180 (65.7) 0.096b
Tobacco use     
   Yes (%) 118 (55.1) 154 (51.0) 157 (57.3) 0.304b
Alcohol consumption     
   Yes (%) 134 (62.6) 180 (59.6) 177 (64.6) 0.460b
Regular exercise     
   Yes (%) 71 (33.2) 90 (29.8) 90 (32.9) 0.643b
Disease history of hypertension     
   Yes (%) 5 (2.3) 4 (1.3) 1 (0.4) 0.165c
Use of PPE at work     
   Never (%) 76 (35.5)f 108 (35.8)f 150 (54.7) < 0.001b
   < 2 hours working time (%) 36 (16.8) 68 (22.5) 50 (18.3)  
   2-4 hours working time (%) 35 (16.4) 39 (12.9) 31 (11.3)  
   > = 4 hours working time (%) 67 (31.3) 87 (28.8) 43 (15.7)  
  1. dBA = A-weighted decibel; PPE = personal protective equipment; SD = standard deviation.
  2. a Kruskal-Wallis test of the difference between three groups. b Chi-square test of the difference between three groups. c Fisher's exact test of the difference between three groups. d Mann-Whitney test for a significant difference (p < 0.050) compared with the low-hearing-loss group. e Mann-Whitney test for a significant difference (p < 0.050) compared with the median-hearing-loss group. f Chi-square test for a significant difference (p < 0.050) compared with the low-hearing-loss group.