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Table 3 Modification of associations between the preceding 1-year Lden and systolic blood pressure by baseline characteristics

From: Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and associations with blood pressure and self-reported hypertension: a cohort study

Covariates N Differences in systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) (95% CI) per 10 dB(A) increase in 1-year exposure to road traffic noise P Pinteraction
Gender     0.01
   Women 22,928 -0.04 (-0.48; 0.40) 0.87  
   Men 21,155 0.59 (0.13; 1.05) 0.01  
Age     0.08
   ≤ 60 years 32,962 0.13 (-0.28; 0.53) 0.54  
   > 60 years 11,121 0.65 (0.08; 1.22) 0.03  
Years of education     0.37
   ≤ 7 14,381 0.27 (-0.25; 0.78) 0.31  
   8-10 20,239 0.40 (-0.06; 0.87) 0.09  
   ≥ 11 9,463 -0.08 (-0.70; 0.54) 0.80  
Municipality SESa     0.63
   Low 6,268 0.57 (-0.22; 1.36) 0.16  
   Medium 28,572 0.19 (-0.23; 0.61) 0.37  
   High 9,243 0.32 (-0.32; 0.95) 0.33  
Outdoor temperature (°C)     0.09
   ≤ 15 38,894 0.18 (-0.20; 0.57) 0.35  
   > 15 5,189 0.87 (0.07; 1.66) 0.03  
Prior diagnosis of cardiovascular diseaseb     0.29
   Yes 998 1.15 (-0.54; 2.85) 0.18  
   No 43,085 0.24 (-0.13; 0.62) 0.21  
  1. Analyses adjusted by age, gender, calendar-year, area, lifestyle factors (smoking, BMI, length of school attendance, municipality SES, alcohol intake and physical activity), air pollution season, temperature and humidity
  2. a Socioeconomic status of municipalities based on municipality information on education, work market affiliation and income
  3. b A diagnosis of myocardial infarction and/or stroke before enrolment