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Table 2 Association between exposure to paint fumes in the residence during 1st trimester of pregnancy and congential anomalies among 19935 women and child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort

From: Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and risk of congenital anomalies: a cohort study

  Cases Non-cases Crude Adjusted*
  N N OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
All congenital malformation
 Not exposed 1013 17518 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 73 1331 0.95 (0.74-1.21) 0.95 (0.74-1.21)
Nervous system
 Not exposed 24 18507 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 4 1400 2.20 (0.76-6.36) 2.19 (0.76-6.32)
Eye
 Not exposed 37 18494 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 5 1399 1.79 (0.70-4.55) 1.79 (0.70-4.57)
Ear, face and neck
 Not exposed 31 18500 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 5 1399 2.13 (0.83-5.49) 2.15 (0.84-5.55)
Congenital heart defects
 Not exposed 156 18375 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 9 1395 0.76 (0.39-1.49) 0.76 (0.39-1.49)
Respiratory system
 Not exposed 23 18508 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 2 1402 0.27 - 4.87 1.13 (0.27-4.79)
Cleft lip and cleft palate
 Not exposed 36 18495 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 3 1401 1.10 (0.34-3.58) 1.06 (0.33-3.46)
Digestive system
 Not exposed 44 18487 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 2 1402 0.60 (0.15-2.48) 0.61 (0.15-2.50)
Abdominal wall defects
 Not exposed 10 18521 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 0 1404   
Renal
 Not exposed 50 18481 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 8 1396 2.12 (1.00-4.48) 2.16 (1.02-4.58)
Genital
 Not exposed 220 18311 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 14 1390 0.84 (0.49-1.44) 0.83 (0.48-1.43)
Limb defects
 Not exposed 386 18145 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 24 1380 0.82 (0.54-1.24) 0.82 (0.54-1.24)
Muscula and skeletal
 Not exposed 45 18486 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 6 1398 1.76 (0.75-4.14) 1.77 (0.75-4.16)
Other malformation
 Not exposed 96 18435 1.00 (Ref) 1.00 (Ref)
 Exposed 9 1395 1.24 (0.62-2.46) 1.24 (0.62-2.46)
  1. *Adjusted for: Maternal age, smoking during 1st trimester, alcohol consumption during 1st trimester, working with organic solvents at first interview (12th week).