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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants in Auckland vs. the rest of New Zealand

From: The role of multilevel factors in geographic differences in bicycle crash risk: a prospective cohort study

Baseline characteristics   Auckland (N = 919) Others (N = 1635) P-value
     Crude Adjusted
Age Mean (SD) 43.8 (10.6) 44.1 (10.3) 0.5  
Male % 73.5 71.8 0.4  
Māori % 2.5 5.0 0.003  
Education      
High school (secondary) or less % 17.6 22.1 0.007 0.01a
Polytechnic % 20.2 28.0 <0.0001 <0.0001a
University % 61.9 49.6 <0.0001 <0.0001a
Missing % 0.2 0.2   
Body mass index Mean (SD) 25.2 (3.3) 25.4 (3.8) 0.1 0.3a
Missing % 0.7 0.6   
NZDep 2006 score      
1–3 % 57.1 46.9 <0.0001 <0.0001b
4–7 % 32.9 37.7 0.01 0.03b
8–10 % 10.0 15.4 0.0001 0.0002b
Main urban area % 95.5 69.4 <0.0001 <0.0001b
Years of cycling Mean (SD) 6.4 (8.3) 7.2 (9.2) 0.02 0.006c
  Median (IQR) 3.0 (7.0) 3.0 (8.5)   
Missing % 0.7 0.3   
Time spent cycling (hours per week) Mean (SD) 5.8 (3.6) 5.7 (3.8) 0.3 0.4c
  Median (IQR) 5.0 (4.5) 5.0 (5.0)   
Missing % 0.2 0.4   
% cycling off-road Mean (SD) 5.8 (14.8) 9.8 (19.6) <0.0001 <0.0001c
  Median (IQR) 0.0 (5.0) 0.0 (10.0)   
Missing % 0.4 0.6   
% cycling in the dark Mean (SD) 11.7 (16.4) 7.5 (12.0) <0.0001 <0.0001c
  Median (IQR) 5.0 (20.0) 1.0 (10.0)   
Missing % 0.2 0.2   
% cycling in a bunch Mean (SD) 23.7 (28.1) 17.2 (23.2) <0.0001 <0.0001c
  Median (IQR) 10.0 (45.0) 5.0 (25.0)   
Missing % 0.8 0.8   
Cycle to work at least once a week % 26.7 31.3 0.05 <0.0001c
Missing % 1.9 1.9   
Mainly use road bike % 89.5 85.0 0.001 0.0007c
Missing % 0.4 0.5   
Crash in the past 12 months % 32.5 29.9 0.2 0.9c
Missing % 0.2 0.2   
Always wear helmet % 98.6 98.7 1 0.5d
Missing % 0.4 0.4   
Wear fluorescent colours      
Always % 29.8 28.8 0.6 0.2d
Sometimes % 49.5 51.3 0.4 0.4d
Never % 19.7 19.1 0.7 0.7d
Missing % 1.0 0.7   
Always use lights in the darke % 85.4 80.8 0.02 0.6d
Missing % 0.1 0.0   
Use reflective materials in the darke      
Always % 44.9 51.7 0.006 0.02d
Sometimes % 27.4 29.0 0.5 0.1d
Never % 27.3 19.0 <0.0001 <0.0001d
Missing % 0.5 0.3   
Ever listen to music while riding % 16.3 16.3 0.9 0.3d
Missing % 0.8 0.4   
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender and ethnicity.
  2. bAdjusted as above plus education and BMI.
  3. cAdjusted as above plus NZDep 2006 scores and urban residence.
  4. dAdjusted as above plus years of cycling, time spent cycling,% cycling off-road,% cycling in the dark,% cycling in a bunch, cycle to work, mainly use road bike and baseline crash history.
  5. eRestricted to 1708 participants who reported cycling in the dark.