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Table 4 Logistic regression model results a

From: Blood cadmium is elevated in iron deficient U.S. children: a cross-sectional study

   Blood Cd   Urinary Cd/g Cr   Urinary Cd  
Outcome Exposure OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)   OR (95% CI)  
   Crude Adjustedb Crude Adjustedb Crudec Adjustedd
ID High vs. low Cd 2.50 (1.82-3.43) 2.78 (1.87-4.12) 1.77 (1.08-2.90) 1.37 (0.81-2.34) 1.64 (0.91-2.97) 1.21 (0.64-2.28)
  Med. vs. low Cd 2.17 (1.72-2.74) 1.90 (1.48-2.43) 1.08 (0.63-1.85) 1.01 (0.58-1.77) 1.17 (0.69-2.00) 1.06 (0.61-1.86)
  p-trend <0.0001 <0.0001 0.02 0.22 0.10 0.56
IDA High vs. low Cd 3.90 (2.11-7.17) 4.02 (1.92-8.41) 1.00 (0.46-2.19) 0.79 (0.35-0.75) 1.78 (0.55-5.73) 0.83 (0.24-2.82)
  Med. vs. low Cd 2.46 (1.48-4.10) 2.00 (1.17-3.42) 0.82 (0.35-1.89) 0.80 (0.34-1.89) 1.10 (0.35-3.48) 0.83 (0.25-2.77)
  p-trend <0.0001 0.0001 0.86 0.48 0.33 0.77
Low SF High vs. low Cd 2.80 (2.08-3.77) 4.08 (2.36-5.89) 1.62 (1.03-2.55) 1.42 (0.88-2.29) 1.91 (1.10-3.31) 1.63 (0.91-2.92)
  Med. vs. low Cd 2.50 (2.02-3.11) 2.38 (1.89-3.00) 1.00 (0.61-1.63) 0.99 (0.59-1.63) 1.30 (0.80-2.13) 1.28 (0.76-2.14)
  p-trend <0.0001 <0.0001 0.03 0.14 0.02 0.1
High FEP High vs. low Cd 1.26 (0.95-1.69) 1.36 (0.95-1.95) 1.42 (0.95-2.14) 1.02 (0.66-1.58) 1.47 (0.91-2.38) 1.12 (0.67-1.88)
  Med. vs. low Cd 1.29 (1.06-1.56) 1.07 (0.88-1.32) 1.16 (0.76-1.75) 0.99 (0.64-1.53) 1.14 (0.75-1.73) 0.99 (0.64-1.54)
  p-trend 0.013 0.133 0.09 0.91 0.19 0.67
Low TSAT High vs. low Cd 1.34 (1.06-1.69) 1.74 (1.30-2.34) 1.19 (0.87-1.64) 1.07 (0.77-1.49) 1.12 (0.76-1.65) 0.94 (0.62-1.41)
  Med. vs. low Cd 1.23 (1.05-1.44) 1.26 (1.07-1.48) 0.84 (0.60-1.16) 0.82 (0.58-1.15) 1.05 (0.75-1.46) 1.02 (0.72-1.43)
  p-trend 0.002 <0.0001 0.27 0.67 0.57 0.76
  1. aCrude and adjusted odds of ID, IDA, low SF, high FEP, and low TSAT for children with high and medium Cd versus low Cd.
  2. bModels adjusted for gender, age, race/ethnicity, PIR, and serum cotinine.
  3. cModels adjusted for UCr only.
  4. dModels adjusted for gender, age, race/ethnicity, PIR, serum cotinine, and UCr.