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Table 1 Average emission levels by facility type a, number of residences with within 5 and 3 km of one or more facility, and number of unique facilities within these distances, at two time points during the 15-year exposure period b

From: Residential proximity to industrial combustion facilities and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a case–control study

  Average emission level (TEQ ng/yr) Number of facility residence pairs (number of unique facilities)
  All U.S. facilities Facilities within 5 km Facilities within 3 km 5 km 3 km
Facility type 1987c 1995 1987c 1995 1987c 1995 1987 1995 1987 1995
Secondary copper smelters 327.8 327.8 - - - - 0 0 0 0
Municipal solid waste incinerators 87.42 19.88 51.23 13.15 51.23 15.77 16 (2) 45 (6) 5 (2) 8 (5)
Cement kilns (hazardous waste) 6.10 8.10 - - - - 0 0 0 0
Iron ore sintering plants 2.69 2.30 - - - - 0 0 0 0
Medical waste incinerators 1.05 0.42 1.00 0.38 0.99 0.38 927 (120) 894 (89) 370 (95) 371 (81)
Coal-fired electric generating facilities 0.17 0.21 0.18 0.21 0.18 0.21 266 (65) 185 (38) 82 (45) 72 (31)
Cement kilns (non-hazardous waste) 0.15 0.19 0.13 0.17 0.13 0.17 47 (6) 48 (6) 16 (6) 14 (5)
Sewage sludge incinerators 0.03 0.07 0.05 0.10 0.06 0.10 66 (10) 66 (8) 23 (6) 19 (7)
Hazardous waste incinerators 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.08 0.01 19 (3) 18 (2) 2 (2) 2 (1)
Industrial boilers 0.06 0.03 - - - - 0 0 0 0
  1. a Database of dioxin emitting facilities in the United States (EPA 2006).
  2. bParticipants with ≥70% of person-years 15 years before diagnosis/reference year with verified GPS and/or geocoded street address (includes street intersections).
  3. c Except for copper smelters and municipal solid waste incinerators, emission levels in 1987 were estimated from the facility’s 1995 emissions as described in the methods.