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Table 1 An analysis of characteristics between the case and control groups

From: Association between maternal exposure to housing renovation and offspring with congenital heart disease: a multi-hospital case–control study

  Controls Cases Chi square P-values
N = 408 (%) N = 346 (%)
Maternal age (yrs) a     
  < 20 8 (2.0) 10 (2.9)   
  20 ~ 24 87 (21.3) 106 (30.6) 10.188 0.037*
  25 ~ 29 193 (47.3) 145 (41.9)   
  30 ~ 34 83 (20.3) 62 (17.9)   
  ≥35 37 (9.1) 23 (6.6)   
Maternal education level a     
  Primary school or less 1 (0.2) 12 (3.5)   
  Junior school 53 (13.0) 104 (30.1) 54.685 <0.001*
  Senior high school 106 (26.0) 86 (24.9)   
  College or advance 242 (59.3) 134 (38.7)   
  Missing 6 (1.5) 9 (2.6)   
Residence     
  Urban 331 (81.1) 215 (62.1)   
  Suburban 63 (15.4) 89 (25.7) 39.907 <0.001*
  Rural 11 (2.7) 39 (11.3)   
  Missing 3 (0.7) 3 (0.9)   
Housing renovation     
  Yes 77 (18.9) 103 (29.8) 12.231 <0.001*
  No 331 (81.1) 243 (70.2)   
Maternal smoking or exposure to ETS     
  Yes 122 (29.9) 159 (46.0) 20.634 <0.001*
  No 286 (70.1) 187 (54.0)   
Maternal cooking at home     
  Yes 249 (61.0) 224 (64.7) 1.103 0.294
  No 159 (39.0) 122 (35.3)   
Factory or landfill nearby     
  Yes 75 (18.4) 100 (28.9) 11.624 0.001*
  No 333 (81.6) 246 (71.1)   
Folic acid supplements     
  Yes 368 (90.2) 272 (78.6) 19.575 <0.001*
  No 40 (9.8) 74 (21.4)   
Indoor air ventilation a     
  Good 178 (43.6) 104 (30.1) 29.221 <0.001*
  Average 215 (52.7) 203 (58.7)   
  Poor 11 (2.7) 37 (10.7)   
  Missing 4 (1.0) 2 (0.6)   
Maternal acute or chronic respiratory disease     
  Yes 192 (47.1) 185 (53.5) 2.852 0.093
  No 214 (52.5) 161 (46.5)   
  Missing 2 (0.5)    
  1. a Baseline data were used in the following multivariate analysis as continuous variables.
  2. * There were significant differences in proportions between the mothers from the case and control groups (tested two-tailed, p < 0.05).