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Table 2 Effect modification of the effect (excess risk per 10 μg/m 3 ) of PM 2.5 on cardiovascular mortality

From: Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review

Subgroup ACS [[18]]a NLCS [[23]] Harvard six city [[43]] Nurses health [[24]] WHI [[22]] AHSMOG [[40]] AHSMOG [[41]]
Sex        
Men 5 (0, 11) 3 (−5, 12)b 33 (8, 63)a NA NA 4 (−3,11) −10 (−−24, 5)
Women 6 (0, 12) 7 (0, 14) 20 (−6, 53)    −3 (−9, 2) 42 (6, 90)
Smoking status        
Never 6 (1, 12) 13 (−4, 32) 36 (2, 82) 83 (20, 179) 18 (−1, 40) NA NA
Former 5 (0, 11) −4 (−17, 13) 29 (−3, 72) 22 (−18, 83) 21 (1, 52)   
Current 4 (−2, 11) 3 (−10, 19) 35 (94, 74) −12 (−48, 48) 68 (6, 166)   
Education        
Low 11 (6, 18) 20 (−10, 70)a 45 (13, 85)   40 (11, 75) NA NA
Medium 6 (1, 13) 2 (−16, 24) 30 (−2,73)   33 (14, 55)   
High 1 (−3, 6) −10 (−35, 20) −3 (−29, 34)   11 (−6, 31)   
Body mass index        
Non-Obese NA NA NA 8 (−24, 52) −1 (−10, 29)c NA NA
Obese     99 (23, 222) 35 (12, 64)c   
  1. a Read from graph.
  2. b natural-cause mortality.
  3. c for BMI < 22.5, continuous trend observed NA = not available.