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Table 5 Summary of the studies on particulate matter and NO2 and mortality from specific cardiovascular diseases (excess risk per 10 μg/m3)

From: Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review

Study name Pollutant Conca(μg/m3) Spatial scaleb % change in risk (95% CI) in mortality associated with a 10 μg/m3increase References
     IHD mortality M.I mortality Cerebrovascular mortality  
ACS study PM2.5 17 (5) City 18 (14, 23) NA 2 (−5, 10) [39]
Oslo cohort NOx 11 (1 – 168) Address (DISP) 8 (3, 12) NA 4 (−6, 15) [68]
Women’s Health Initiative Study PM2.5 14 (3–28) Zip code 5 (near) 76 (25,147) NA NA [22]
Netherlands Cohort Study BS 17 (9–36) Address (LUR) 1 (−17, 22) NA 39 (−1, 94) [23]
Nurses’ Health Study PM10 22 (4) Address (LUR) 35 (3, 77) NA NA [24]
Nurses’ Health Study PM2.5 14 (6–28) Address (LUR) NA 102 (7, 278) NA [25]
California teachers study PM2.5 18 (7–39) Address (near) 55 (24, 93) NA NA [27]
Swiss national cohort PM10 19 (>40)c Address (Disp) −1 (−3, 0) NA −1 (−2, 0) [28]
Health professionals follow-up study PM2.5 18 (3) Address (LUR) −2 (−30, 35) NA NA [29]
Canadian national cohort PM2.5 9 (2 – 19) Enumeration area, N = 45710 (satellite) 30 (18,43) NA 4 (−7, 16) [34]
Californian Teachers study PM2.5 16 (3–28) Address (Inter) 20 (2, 41) NA 16 (−8, 46) [36]
Shizuoka elderly cohort NO2 25 (−19, 75) Address (LUR) 27 (2, 58) NA 9 (−6, 27) [70]
Nippon data cohort PM10 <27 - > 43 District (near) −8 (−27, 17) NA −14 (−26,1) [37]
DCH NO2 17 (11 – 60) Address (Disp) 7 (−9, 26) NA 6 (−14, 32) [69]
Ontario Tax cohort NO2 43 (8), 31 (6), 24 (5)c Address (LUR) 9 (4, 14) NA −4 (−10, 5) [71]
Rome longitudinal study PM2.5 23 (7 – 32) Address (DISP, 1 km grid) 10 (6, 13) NA 8 (4, 13) [38]
M.I. registry studies        
Stockholm NO2 14 (3 – 32) Address (DISP) NA 15 (−1, 33) NA [72]
Rome residents NO2 (<30 - > 60) Census block (LUR) NA 7 (2, 12) NA [73]
Stockholm residents NO2 12 (2 – 33) Address (DISP) NA 8 (5, 11) NA [74]
  1. IHD = ischemic heart disease; MI = myocardial infarction. Fatal MI reported for registry studies. NA = not available.
  2. a Mean with minimum – maximum in parentheses (μg/m3). One number in parentheses is standard deviation.
  3. b Spatial scale of exposure assignment, in parentheses exposure assignment method. City = average of monitors within the city; Near = nearest monitor concentration; LUR = land use regression; Disp = dispersion modeling; Inter = interpolation.
  4. c Median and 90th percentile reported.
  5. Studies adjusted for individual smoking except references [26, 28, 30, 34, 38, 56].