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Table 3 Adjusted change in blood lead concentration (μg/dL) associated with sources of environmental lead, behaviors, dietary iron intake, and demographic characteristics from 6 to 24 months of age*

From: The contribution of housing renovation to children’s blood lead levels: a cohort study

Variables   Change in blood lead concentration  
Estimate (standard error) 5thpercentile 95thpercentile Percent change Absolute change (μg/dL)† P value
Floor lead (μg/ft2) 0.014 (0.003) 0.8 30.7 39.4 1.97 <.0001
Soil lead (ppm) 0.002 (0.001) 0.18 46.6 11.3 0.57 0.02
Water lead (> 5 ppb) 0.186 (0.052)    20.4 1.02 <0.001
Time spent outdoors 0.090 (0.034)    9.4 0.47 0.009
Soil ingestion 0.143 (0.037)    15.3 0.77 <0.001
Interior renovation 0.115 (0.037)    12.2 0.61 0.002
Age-modified variables       
Iron intake (mg/day) 0.011 (0.004)      0.003
 6 mo   5.6 39.4 −30.7 −1.54  
 12 m   4.9 31.0 −0.8 −0.40  
 18 mo   4.4 18.1 2.3 0.12  
 24 mo   5.0 20.0 7.7 0.38  
Rental housing −0.346 (0.089)      <0.001
 6 mo     −8.6 −0.43  
 12 mo     16.2 0.81  
 18 mo     33.7 1.68  
 24 mo     47.7 2.38  
Ingest paint chips −0.246 (0.094)      0.009
 6 mo     37.8 −1.89  
 12 mo     16.2 0.81  
 18 mo     5.1 1.68  
 24 mo     −2.1 2.38  
Trough lead (μg/ft2) 0.019 (0.009)      0.044
 6 mo   0.034 23.20 −9.4 −0.47  
 12 mo   0.005 4.69 4.1 0.21  
 18 mo   0.005 4.41 7.4 0.37  
 24 mo   0.002 6.52 15.1 0.75  
Black race 0.179 (0.067)      0.007
 6 mo     27.3 1.36  
 12 mo     44.1 2.21  
 18 mo     55.0 2.75  
 24 mo     63.2 3.16  
  1. * The percent change that is presented represents the change a child would incur if they increased their exposure from the 5th percentile of a given exposure to the 95th percentile; for age modified variables the percent change is presented for the specific 6 month measure. The variables with no presented value in the 5th and 95th columns were dichotomous, thus there is no 5th or 95th percentile.
  2. † The absolute change that is presented represents the change a child with a blood lead concentration of 5 μg/dL would incur for a given exposure, behavior, or characteristic.