Skip to main content

Table 1 Major findings of As-associated immune-related effects that are consistent across multiple studies

From: Arsenic immunotoxicity: a review

Immune parameter Major findings Study model Description References
Defense genes/proteins ↓ MHC class II Humans PBMC mRNA [19]
   Animals Mouse macrophage surface expression [106]
  ↓ CD69 Humans PBMC mRNA [19]
   Human cells PBMC surface expression [122]
   Animal cells Mouse SMC surface expression [115]
  ↓ IL-1β Humans PBMC mRNA [19, 20]
   Animals Mouse lung mRNA & protein [82, 110]
    Zebrafish mRNA [83]
  ↑ CD14 Humans PBMC mRNA & surface expression [21, 30]
   Human cells Macrophage surface expression [130, 131]
  ↓ TNF-α Humans PBMC mRNA [20, 22]
    PBMC secretion [26]
   Animals Zebrafish mRNA [84]
    Rat PAM secretion [104]
    Mouse lung fluid protein [110]
Inflammation ↑ Expression of inflammatory mediators Humans ↑ PBMC IL1B, IL6, CCL2 & CD14 mRNA in adults [21]
    ↑ PBMC CD14 surface expression & TNF-α secretion in adults [30]
    ↑ PBMC GM-CSF secretion in children [67]
    ↑ Placental & cord blood IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ in neonates [79]
   Human cells ↑ Macrophage mRNA & secretion of TNF-α & IL-8 [130]
Lymphocyte activation ↓ Stimulated proliferation Humans PBMC in adults [2426]
    PBMC in children [67]
   Animals Chicken SMC & PBMC [91]
    Mouse SMC [92]
    Catfish SMC [90, 93]
   Human cells PBMC [113, 114]
   Animal cells Mouse SMC [115, 116]
    Chicken SMC [117]
  ↓ Stimulated IL-2 secretion Humans PBMC in adults [26]
    PBMC in children [67]
   Animals Mouse SMC [92, 98]
    Catfish SMC [93]
   Human cells PBMC [113, 114]
   Animal cells Mouse SMC [115, 116]
    Chicken SMC [117]
    Harbor seal 11B7501 lymphoma B-cells [118]
Humoral immunity ↓ AFC response to antigen Animals Mouse SMC [89, 9496]
  Rat SMC [87, 97]
Animal cells Mouse SMC [128, 129]
Hypersensitivity reaction ↓ Response to cutaneous sensitization Animals ↓ LC migration to lymph nodes & subsequent T-cell activation in mice [94, 99]
Rats [88, 100]
Chickens [91]
Monocytes/ macrophages ↓ Number/survival Humans ↓ Monocyte count [28]
   Animals ↓ Mouse splenic macrophage count [89]
    ↓ Catfish HK macrophage count [90, 93]
    ↑ Apoptosis of mouse splenic macrophages [103]
   Human cells ↑ Apoptosis of blood monocytes & U937 promonocytic cells [126]
  Impaired development Human cells ↓ Differentiation of monocytes into macrophages [130133]
    Induced differentiation of macrophages into DC-like cells [130, 131]
  Diminished function Humans Cell rounding; ↓ adhesion/CD54 adhesion molecule, F-actin, NO- production & phagocytosis; altered Rho A-ROCK signaling [29]
   Animals ↓ Rat PAM stimulated TNF-α secretion [104]
    ↓ Mouse peritoneal macrophage NO- & O2 - production [101]
    ↓ Mouse splenic macrophage adhesion, chemotactic index, phagocytosis, NO- production, MHC class II surface expression & antigen presentation [103, 105, 106]
    ↓ Chicken SMC & PBMC NO- production [91]
    ↓ Molluscan haemocyte phagocytosis & NO- production [102]
   Human cells Cell rounding; ↓ adhesion & macrophage-specific markers; reorganized F-actin cytoskeleton resembling that of monocytes; ↑ monocytic marker CD14; ↓ endocytosis & phagocytosis via activated Rho A-ROCK signaling [130, 131]
Survival ↑ Induction of apoptosis Humans PBMC in adults [30]
    ↑ PBMC BCL2L1 & CASP2 mRNA in adults [22]
    PBMC in children [64, 65]
    ↑ CBMC CASP2 mRNA in neonates [80]
   Animals Mouse splenic macrophages [103]
   Human cells Blood monocytes & U937 promonocytic cells [126]
    PBMC [64]
    B-cells, T-cells, macrophages & neutrophils [123]
   Animal cells Mouse TA3 antigen-presenting B-cells [125]
    Rat T-cells [124]
ROS production Induced oxidative stress Humans ↑ Serum SOD & PBMC MDA in adults [27]
    ↑ Basal PBMC/monocyte NO- & O2 - in children [72]
    ↑ Placental 8-oxoguanine in neonates [79]
    ↑ Cord blood 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in neonates [80]
  ↓ Stimulated ROS production Humans ↓ Macrophage NO- in adults [29]
    ↓ Monocyte NO- & O2 - in children [73]
   Animals ↓ Mouse peritoneal macrophage NO- & O2 - [101]
    ↓ Mouse splenic macrophage NO- [103, 105, 106]
    ↓ Chicken SMC & PBMC NO- [91]
    ↓ Molluscan haemocyte NO- [102]
    Zebrafish embryos & larvae [84, 85]
Microbial challenge ↓ Clearance of pathogens Animals ↑ Viral & bacterial loads in zebrafish embryos and larvae [85]
    ↑ Pathogen colonization & ulcers/septicemia following bacterial infection in catfish [90, 93]
    ↓ Splenic clearance of S. aureus in mice [105]
    ↑ Morbidity & respiratory viral titers following H1N1 viral infection in mice [110]
Pulmonary health Altered lung features Humans Altered airway protein expression in adults [139, 141]
   Animals Altered mouse airway protein expression [140, 141]
    ↓ Rat PAM stimulated TNF-α secretion [104]
    ↓ Mouse lung expression of genes involved in cell adhesion/migration [81, 82]
    ↓ Killifish gill chloride secretion via ↑ CFTR degradation [136]
   Human cells ↓ CFBE41o- AE cell chloride secretion via ↑ CFTR degradation [135]
    ↓ 16HBE14o- bronchial epithelial cell migration and wound repair [137, 138]
   Animal cells ↓ Rat PAM stimulated TNF-α secretion & NO- & O2 - production [104]
  ↑ Risk of infection/disease Humans ↑ RTI & tuberculosis in adults [26, 29, 35]
    ↓ Lung function; ↑ prevalence/mortality from lung cancer and non-malignant lung disease, including bronchitis & bronchiectasis in adults [34, 3641]
    ↑ RTI in infants [77, 78]
   Animals ↑ Morbidity & respiratory viral titers following H1N1 infection in mice [110]
  1. Note: all cells are primary cells unless otherwise stated. Subjects of human studies are adults unless otherwise stated.
  2. ↓ decreased; ↑ increased.