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Table 4 Subsample analysis: associations between ‘heart disease and stroke’ and noise adjusted for exposure to nitrogen dioxide

From: Exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise and associations with heart disease and stroke in six European countries: a cross-sectional study

Heart disease and stroke Daytime aircraft noise per 10 dB(A) Night-time aircraft noise per 10 dB(A) 24 hr road traffic noise per 10 dB(A)
UK and Netherlands combined    
Participants = 1411; Cases = 84    
Crude (adjusted for country) 1.30 (0.98, 1.73) 1.22 (0.97, 1.53) 1.32 (0.92, 1.88)
Adjusteda 1.17 (0.86, 1.59) 1.14 (0.89, 1.45) 1.28 (0.88, 1.87)
Adjusteda plus nitrogen dioxide exposure 1.24 (0.90, 1.71) 1.22 (0.95, 1.58) 0.93 (0.57, 1.53)
% change in coefficient (absolute value) 37% 54% 127%
Sweden    
Participants = 990; Cases = 53    
Crude 0.71 (0.54, 0.94) 1.01 (0.71, 1.43) 1.21 (0.74, 1.99)
Adjusteda 0.73 (0.54, 0.99) 0.88 (0.61, 1.27) 1.08 (0.64, 1.80)
Adjusteda plus nitrogen dioxide exposure 0.74 (0.55, 1.01) 0.93 (0.62, 1.40) 0.99 (0.56, 1.73)
% change in coefficient (absolute value) 5% 46% 117%
≥ 20 years residence    
UK and Netherlands combined    
Participants = 828; Cases = 52    
Crude (adjusted for country) 1.30 (0.91, 1.87) 1.38 (1.02, 1.86) 1.51 (0.97, 2.36)
Adjusteda 1.19 (0.80, 1.77) 1.33 (0.96, 1.84) 1.49 (0.91, 2.43)
Adjusteda plus nitrogen dioxide exposure 1.25 (0.82, 1.90) 1.43 (1.01, 2.01) 1.14 (0.61, 2.15)
% change in coefficient (absolute value) 29% 24% 67%
Sweden    
Participants = 480; Cases = 35    
Crude 0.93 (0.62, 1.38) 1.37 (0.87, 2.14) 0.95 (0.49, 1.86)
Adjusteda 1.02 (0.64, 1.63) 1.29 (0.77, 2.15) 0.80 (0.39, 1.62)
Adjusteda plus nitrogen dioxide exposure 1.03 (0.64, 1.65) 1.36 (0.78, 2.37) 0.72 (0.32, 1.62)
% change in coefficient (absolute value) 26% 21% 39%
  1. Associations expressed in odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. % change in coefficient compares adjusted models before and after additional adjustment for nitrogen dioxide.
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, education, ethnicity, BMI, physical activity (< once/week, 1–3 times/week, > 3 times/week), smoking (never, past, current), alcohol intake (teetotal, 1–7 units/week, 8–14 units/week, >14 units/week; 1 unit = 10 ml pure ethanol). In addition, the aircraft noise models were adjusted for 24 hour road traffic noise and the road traffic noise model was adjusted for night-time aircraft noise.