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Table 2 Associations between RF-EMF exposures and ‘Headache’ (symptom)

From: The relationship between adolescents’ well-being and their wireless phone use: a cross-sectional study

Symptom Symptom categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Exposure Exposure categories (N for unadjusted model/N for adjusted model) Unadjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Adjusted OR (95% CI) for each exposure category Confounders in model
Headache No, hardly ever (204/194) Cordless calls > 10 mins. made and rec’d weekly 0 (64/59) 1 1 Cold/flu*+
1 or 2 weekly (87/84) 1-2 (104/103) 1.27 (0.90-1.77) 1.28 (0.90-1.83) Woken by phone+
3 or 4 weekly (25/24) 3-9 (84/78) 1.40 (0.98-1.98) 1.35 (0.92-1.96) Light out time
Most days (16/15) 10-120 (80/77) 1.76 (1.23-2.51)* 1.41 (0.95-2.09)
Headache No, hardly ever (216/216) Minutes on cordless phone daily 0-4 (148/148) 1 1 Cold/flu**+
1 or 2 weekly (89/89) 5-15 (104/104) 0.83 (0.49-1.41) 0.78 (0.45-1.32)
3 or more times weekly (43/43) 16-240 (96/96) 1.88 (1.14-3.12) 1.74 (1.05-2.90)
Headache No, hardly ever (218/213) Cellphone calls >10 minutes weekly 0 (277/271) 1 1 Cold/flu**+
1 or 2 times weekly (91/91) 1-6 (66/66) 1.27 (0.95-1.69) 1.14 (0.84-1.53) Woken by phone*+
3 or 4 times weekly (29/29) 7-35 (12/12) 2.37 (1.21-4.62) 2.40 (1.19-4.83)
Most days (17/16)
Headache No, hardly ever (-/215) Cellphone headset No (320) Model invalid 1 Cold/flu**+
1 or 2 weekly (-/91) Wired (16) 1.29 (0.71-2.36) Woken by phone
3 or more weekly (-/43) Wireless (13) 2.23 (1.10-4.53) Light out time
Headache No, hardly ever (-/93) Cordless phone frequency Not exposed (-/28) Model invalid 1 Cold/flu**+
1 or 2 weekly (-/38) ≤ 900 MHz (-/19) 1.04 (0.38-2.90) Woken by phone
3 or more weekly (-/14) 1.8-1.9 GHz (-/27) 1.42 (0.61-3.34)
2.4 GHz (-/53) 0.74 (0.34-1.63)
    5.8 GHz (-/18)   1.55 (0.61-3.96)  
  1. Bold font Sig. p < 0.05; *Sig. p ≤ 0.01; **Sig. p ≤ 0.001; + positive association; ‘Model invalid’ means it did not meet the criteria outlined in the methods.